DEFINITION of Blank Check Company

A blank check company is a developmental stage company that has no established business plan or has the intent to merge or acquire another firm or business entity. Blank check companies are speculative in nature and are bound by Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 419 to protect investors.

BREAKING DOWN Blank Check Company

Blank check companies are considered penny stocks or microcap stocks by the SEC. Therefore, the SEC imposes additional rules and requirements on these companies. For instance, they must deposit the raised funds into an escrow account until shareholders officially approve an acquisition and the business combination is made. Also, these companies are not allowed to use certain exemptions under Regulation D of the Securities Act of 1933. Rule 504 of Regulation D exempts companies from registration of securities for offerings up to $1 million. The SEC prohibits blank check companies from using Rule 504.

A type of blank check company is a "special purpose acquisition company" (SPAC), which is formed to raise funds via an initial public offering (IPO) to finance a merger or acquisition within a certain timeframe, typically 24 months. The money is held escrow until a combination transaction closes; if no acquisition is made after 24 months, the SPAC is dissolved and funds are returned. The SPAC managers normally hold 20% equity with the balance going to subscribers of the IPO.

Example of a Blank Check Company

The Gores Group, a Los Angeles-based private equity firm, created blank check company Gores Holdings in 2015. The company raised $375 million in an IPO and became the vehicle that facilitated the purchase of Twinkie-maker Hostess Brands that year with other institutional investors. Following that success, The Gores Group decided to form Gores Holdings II in 2016 "for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses," according to the S-1 filing.