What is a 'Butterfly Spread'
A butterfly spread is a neutral option strategy combining bull and bear spreads. Butterfly spreads use four option contracts with the same expiration but three different strike prices to create a range of prices the strategy can profit from. The trader sells two option contracts at the middle strike price and buys one option contract at a lower strike price and one option contract at a higher strike price. Both puts and calls can be used for a butterfly spread.
BREAKING DOWN 'Butterfly Spread'
Butterfly spreads have limited risk, and the maximum losses that occur are the cost of your original investment. The highest return you can earn occurs when the price of the underlying asset is exactly at the strike price of the middle options. Option trades of this type are structured to have a high chances of earning a profit, albeit a small profit. A long position in a butterfly spread will earn profit if the future volatility of the underlying stock price is lower than the implied volatility. A short position in a butterfly spread will earn a profit when the future volatility of the underlying stock price is higher than the implied volatility.
An Example of a Butterfly Spread
By selling short two call options at a given strike price, and buying one call option at an upper and one at a lower strike price (often called the wings of the butterfly), an investor is in a position to earn a profit if the underlying asset achieves a certain price point at expiration. A critical step in constructing a proper butterfly spread is that the wings of the butterfly must be equidistant from the middle strike price. Thus, if an investor short sells two options on an underlying asset at a strike price of $60, he must purchase one call option each at the $55 and $65 strike prices.
In this scenario, an investor would make the maximum profit if the underlying asset is priced at $60 at expiration. If the underlying asset is below $55 at expiration, the investor would realize his maximum loss, which would be the net price of buying the two wing call options plus the proceeds of selling the two middle strike options. The same occurs if the underlying asset is priced at $65 or above at expiration.
If the underlying asset is priced between $55 and $65, a loss or profit may occur. The amount of premium paid to enter the position is key. Assume that it costs $2.50 to enter into the position. Based on that, if the underlying asset is priced anywhere below $60 minus $2.50, the position would experience a loss. The same holds true if the underlying asset were priced at $60 plus $2.50 at expiration. In this scenario, the position would profit if the underlying asset is priced anywhere between $57.50 and $62.50 at expiration.
Long Call Butterfly Spread
There are several different kinds of butterfly spreads. The long butterfly spread is created by buying one inthemoney call option with a low strike price, writing two atthemoney call options, and buying one outofthemoney call option with a higher strike price. A net debit is created when entering the trade.
Short Call Butterfly Spread
The short butterfly spread is created by one inthemoney call option with a low strike price, buying two atthemoney call options, and selling an outofthemoney call option at a higher strike price. A net credit is created when entering the position.
Long Put Butterfly Spread
The long put butterfly spread is created by buying one put with a lower strike price, selling two atthemoney puts, and buying a put with a higher strike price. A net debit is created when entering the position.
Short Put Butterfly Spread
The short put butterfly spread is created by writing one outofthemoney put option with a low strike price, buying two atthemoney puts, and writing an inthemoney put option at a higher strike price.
Iron Butterfly Spread
The iron butterfly spread is created by buying an outofthemoney put option with a lower strike price, writing an atthemoney put option with a middle strike price, writing an atthemoney call option with a middle strike price, and buying an outofthemoney call option with a higher strike price. The result is a trade with a net credit that's better suited for lower volatility scenarios.
Reverse Iron Butterfly Spread
The reverse iron butterfly spread is created by writing an outofthemoney put option at a lower strike price, buying an atthemoney put option at a middle strike price, buying an atthemoney call option at a middle strike price, and writing an outofthemoney call option at a higher strike price. This creates a net debit trade that's better suited for highvolatility scenarios.

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