What is 'Compounding'
Compounding is the process in which an asset's earnings, from either capital gains or interest, are reinvested to generate additional earnings over time. This growth, calculated using exponential functions,Â occursÂ because the investment will generate earnings fromÂ both its initial principal and the accumulated earnings from preceding periods. Compounding, therefore, differs from linear growth, where only the principal earns interest each period.
BREAKING DOWN 'Compounding'
Compounding typically refers to theÂ increasingÂ value of an asset due to the interest earned on both aÂ principal and accumulated interest. This phenomenon, which is a direct realization of the time value of money (TMV) concept, is also known as compound interest.Â Compound interest works on both assets and liabilities. While compoundingÂ boosts the value of an asset more rapidly, it can also increase the amount of money owed on a loan, as interest accumulates on the unpaid principal and previous interest charges.
To illustrate how compounding works, supposeÂ $10,000 is heldÂ in an account that pays 5% interest annually. After the first year, or compounding period, the total in the account has risen to $10,500, a simple reflection of $500 in interest being added to the $10,000 principal. In year two,Â the accountÂ realizes 5% growth on both the original principal and the $500 of firstyear interest, resultingÂ in a secondyear gain of $525 and a balance of $11,025. After 10 years, assuming no withdrawals and a steady 5% interest rate, the account would grow to $16,288.95.
Compounding as the Basis ofÂ Future Value
The formula for the future value (FV) of a current asset relies on the concept of compoundÂ interest. It takes into account the present value of an asset, the annualÂ interest rate, and the frequency of compounding (or number of compounding periods) per year and the total number of years. The generalized formula for compound interest is:
FV = PV x [1 + (i / n)]Â ^{(n x t)}, where:
 FV = future value
 PV = present value
 i = the annual interest rate
 n = the number of compounding periods per year
 t = the number of years
Example of Increased Compounding Periods
The effects of compounding strengthen as the frequency of compounding increases. Assume a oneyear time period. The more compounding periods throughout this one year, theÂ higher the future value of the investment, so naturally, two compounding periods per year are better than one, and four compounding periods per year are better than two.
To illustrate this effect, consider the following example given the above formula. Assume that an investment of $1 million earns 20% per year. The resulting future value, based on a varying number of compounding periods, is:
 Annual compounding (n = 1): FV = $1,000,000 x [1 + (20%/1)]Â ^{(1 x 1)} = $1,200,000
 Semiannual compounding (n = 2): FV = $1,000,000 x [1 + (20%/2)]Â ^{(2 x 1)} = $1,210,000
 Quarterly compounding (n = 4): FV = $1,000,000 x [1 + (20%/4)]Â ^{(4 x 1)} = $1,215,506
 Monthly compounding (n = 12): FV = $1,000,000 x [1 + (20%/12)]Â ^{(12 x 1)} = $1,219,391
 Weekly compounding (n = 52): FV = $1,000,000 x [1 + (20%/52)] ^{(52 x 1)} = $1,220,934
 Daily compounding (n = 365): FV = $1,000,000 x [1 + (20%/365)] ^{(365 x 1)} = $1,221,336
As evident, the future value increases by a smaller margin even as the number of compounding periods per year increases significantly. The frequency of compounding over a set length of time has a limited effect on an investment's growth. This limit, based on calculus, is known as continuous compounding and can beÂ calculated using the formula:
FV = PV x e ^{(i x t)}, where e = the irrational number 2.7183.
In the above example, the future value with continuous compounding equals: FV = $1,000,000 x 2.7183 ^{(0.2 x 1)} = $1,221,403.
Example ofÂ Compounding forÂ Investing Strategy
Compounding is crucial to finance, and the gains attributable to its effects are the motivation behind many investing strategies. For example, many corporations offerÂ dividend reinvestmentÂ plans that allow investors to reinvest their cash dividends to purchase additional shares of stock. Reinvesting in more ofÂ theseÂ dividendpaying shares compounds investorÂ returns because the increased number of shares will consistently increase future income from dividend payouts, assuming steady dividends.
Investing in dividend growth stocks on top of reinvesting dividends adds another layer of compounding to this strategy that some investorsÂ refer to as "double compounding." In this case,Â not only are dividends being reinvested to buy moreÂ shares, but these dividend growth stocks are also increasing their pershareÂ payouts.

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