What Is a Contingent Beneficiary
A contingent beneficiary is specified by an insurance contract holder or retirement account owner as the person or entity receiving proceeds if the primary beneficiary is deceased, unable to be located, or refuses the inheritance at the time the proceeds are to be paid. A contingent beneficiary is entitled to insurance proceeds or retirement assets only if certain predetermined conditions are met at the time of the insured's death (as can be found in a will).
How Contingent Beneficiary Assignment Works
For a contingent beneficiary of a will, virtually any conditions may be in place; it depends entirely on the person drafting the will. A contingent beneficiary will receive nothing if the primary beneficiary accepts an inheritance. For example, let us say Cheryl lists her husband John as the primary beneficiary for her life insurance policy and their two children as contingent beneficiaries. When Cheryl dies, John receives the insurance payout and the children receive nothing. If John predeceases Cheryl, their children each receive half the proceeds.
Characteristics of Contingent Beneficiaries
Contingent beneficiaries may be people, organizations, estates, charities or trusts. Minor children or pets do not qualify because they do not have the legal power to accept assigned assets. If a minor is listed as a contingent beneficiary, a legal guardian is appointed to oversee the money until the minor reaches the age of majority. Because many people name immediate family as primary beneficiaries, they often select close friends and relatives as contingent beneficiaries.
Multiple contingent beneficiaries may be listed on a life insurance policy or retirement account. Each beneficiary is designated a specific percentage of the money, adding up to 100%. A contingent beneficiary receives assets in the same manner stated for the primary beneficiary. For example, a primary beneficiary receiving $1,000 per month for 10 years means a contingent beneficiary receives payments the same way.
Contingent beneficiaries need to be reviewed and updated after major life changes such as marriage, divorce, birth, or death. For example, after Bob and Sue divorce, he updates his life insurance policy so his daughter Samantha is the primary beneficiary and his son Jackson is the contingent beneficiary. Bob successfully blocks Sue from receiving his life insurance proceeds.
Benefits of Naming Contingent Beneficiaries
Naming a contingent beneficiary for a life insurance policy or retirement account helps one’s family avoid unnecessary time and expenses related to probate. For example, Sarah lists her children's stepfather Alex as the primary beneficiary and her favorite charity as the contingent beneficiary for her life insurance proceeds. Even if Alex dies before Sarah, her children cannot fight over her life insurance benefits, because she listed the charity as the contingent beneficiary.
A life insurance policyholder or retirement account owner can create contingencies preventing an inheritance without meeting certain qualifications. For example, an individual retirement account (IRA) owner could establish her daughter as the contingent beneficiary and attach a restriction that she may only inherit the money after she completes college.