A credit union is a type of financial co-operative. Ranging in size from small, volunteer-only operations to large entities with thousands of participants, credit unions can be formed by large corporations, organizations and other entities for their employees and members. Credit institutions are created, owned and operated by their participants.
Credit unions follow a basic business model: members pool their money – technically, they are buying shares in the cooperative – in order to be able to provide loans, demand deposit accounts, and other financial products and services to each other. Any income generated is used to fund projects and services that will benefit the community and interests of its members.
Credit unions are significantly smaller in size than most banks, and are structured to serve a particular region, industry or group. For example, Wells Fargo has over 8,800 branches and 13,000 ATMs across the country, while the Navy Federal Credit Union (NFCU) – the largest credit union by asset size in the U.S., open to members of the military – has 300 branches, with many near military bases. However, just because most credit unions have fewer branches does not mean they cannot have a similar reach as the big banks. Many credit unions are part of an ATM network designed to expand their reach. Counting this network, as well as their own, Navy Federal Credit Union members have access to over 52,000 ATMs nationwide, for example, over four times the number of Wells Fargo ATMs.
While credit unions and banks generally offer the same services, such as accepting deposits, lending money and offering financial products (credit and debit cards, Certificates of Deposit (CDs), etc.), there are key structural differences that affect the ways in which the two types of institutions make money. The biggest difference is that banks function to generate profits for their shareholders, while credit unions operate as not-for-profit organizations designed to serve their members, who also are de facto owners.
For banks, the need to deliver profits to the bottom line usually results in more and higher fees, lower returns on deposits and higher lending rates than credit unions. While credit unions still must make enough to cover their operations, the absence of the need to generate profits generally allows for lower fees and account minimums, higher rates on savings, and lower borrowing rates for their members/owners. In this paradigm, the process credit unions use for generating revenue benefits the members who have accounts with the institution, rather than shareholders focused on profitability.
To do any business with a credit union, you must join it by opening an account there (often for a nominal amount); as soon as you do, you become a member and partial owner. That means you participate in the union's affairs; you have a vote in determining the board of directors and decisions surrounding the union. A member’s voting ability is not based on how much money is in his or her accounts; each member gets an equal vote.
According to the National Credit Union Administration, membership in federally insured credit unions grew to 103.7 million in the first quarter of 2016, an increase of 3.8% from the first quarter of 2015.
Credit unions originated in Rochdale, England, in 1844 when a group of weavers established the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers. They raised the capital to buy goods at discount prices and then passed the savings along to their members. Friederich W. Raiffeisen, considered to be the founder of the modern credit union, established the Heddesdorf credit union in Germany in 1846. Credit unions were then introduced in Canada in 1901 and finally came to U.S. in 1908: The St. Mary's Bank Credit Union in Manchester, New Hampshire was the first.
Today, credit unions have become extremely widespread; many are virtually national in scope. Some, known as Federal Credit Unions (FCU), operate under federal financial regulations rather than state banking laws (despite the name, they are not actually run by the federal government).
Originally, membership in a credit union was limited to people who shared a "common bond": working in the same industry or for the same company, or living in the same community. In the recent past, however, credit unions have loosened the restrictions on membership, allowing the general public to join – sometimes to the consternation of traditional retail banks.
The objective of a credit union is summed up in the saying, "not for profit, not for charity, but for service." Since inception, credit unions have run according to a philosophy that has come to be known as the "Seven Cooperative Principals for Credit Unions." These principals are as follows:
Like banks, the process of making money at credit unions starts by attracting deposits. In this area, credit unions have two distinct advantages over banks resulting from their status as nonprofit organizations. The first is an exemption from paying corporate income tax on earnings. The second is that credit unions only need to generate enough earnings to fund daily operations. As a result, they enjoy narrower operating margins than banks, which are expected by shareholders to increase earnings every quarter. Being able to work with narrow margins allows credit unions to pay higher interest rates on deposits, while also charging lower fees for other services, such as checking accounts and ATM withdrawals.
For example, as of March 2017, the national average rate for five-year CDs offered by credit unions was 1.56% versus an average rate of 1.27% at banks. Money market rates at credit unions were also higher, with an average rate of 0.17% versus the average bank rate of 0.13%. While they sound small, these differences add up, giving credit unions a significant advantage over banks when competing for deposits.
Again, like banks, credit unions make most of their money by using the deposits held on account to fund loans with higher rates than the interest they pay out on CDs, money market accounts and, in some cases, checking accounts. But the not-for-profit status also works in the favor of members here too. A credit union typically offers credit cards with lower APRs and annual fees than a bank, as well as more generous terms on personal loans, home equity loans and mortgages. For example, as of March 2017, the average rate on credit cards offered by credit unions was 11.53%, compared to the average bank credit card rate of 12.81%. Balance transfer fees and maximum late fees were also lower than the averages from bank-issued credit cards.
The biggest difference in rates between credit unions and banks is in auto loans. The average interest rate on 36-month used car loans originated at credit unions was 2.74%, as of March 2017. The average rate for the same loan through a bank was 5.04% – almost double.
As mentioned earlier, credit unions have considerably fewer brick-and-mortar locations than most banks, which can be a drawback for clients who like in-person service. Most offer modern services such as online banking and auto-bill pay. However, smaller credit unions typically do not have the same technology budget as banks, so the website and security features are often considerably less advanced.
And while they offer most of the financial products and services that banks do, credit unions often provide less choice. Bank of America has 21 different credit card options, ranging from rewards cards to student cards, while NFCU has only five. The second largest credit union in the country, the State Employees’ Credit Union (SECU), offers one credit card.
With more resources to allocate to customer service and personnel, banks are keeping later and longer hours: open until 5 or 6 PM on weekdays, and often on Saturdays as well. Credit unions tend to maintain traditional bankers' business hours (nine to three, Monday through Friday), though the larger ones, such as SECU, have a 24-hour customer service hotline.
Even so, consumers often report a higher sense of community and friendliness when dealing with credit union employees, along with more intelligent and efficient service. Credit union tellers are often trained to learn the names and preferences of members, and in general, the whole client experience feels more personal.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) does not cover credit unions. However, the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), established in 1934, regulates federally chartered credit unions like the FCU mentioned above, and those with headquarters in Arkansas, Delaware, South Dakota, Wyoming or the District of Columbia. The NCUA's Credit Union Locator can verify whether a credit union is federally chartered.
One of the NCUA's main responsibilities is to administer National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF), which uses federal monies to back up shares (deposits) in all federal credit unions. The NCUA provides coverage for each individual account, joint account, trust account, retirement account (such as traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs or Keogh Plan accounts), and business account for up to $250,000 apiece. For example, if you have an individual account, a Roth IRA and a business account at a federal credit union, your total shares are insured up to $750,000.