What Is the Department of Commerce (DOC)?

The Department of Commerce (DOC) is the cabinet department in the U.S. government that deals with business, trade, and commerce to ensure economic vitality. The Department of Commerce is run by the secretary of commerce, a presidential cabinet post confirmed by the Senate. Gina Raimondo was sworn in as the current Secretary of Commerce in 2021.

Key Takeaways

  • The Department of Commerce (DOC) is a department of the United States government dedicated to promoting economic growth.
  • Working with businesses, cities, and academic institutions, the DOC stimulates jobs through sustainable development, economic growth, international terms, and technology.
  • The DOC consists of several bureaus and offices, such as the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Patent and Trade Office, and the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Understanding Department of Commerce (DOC)

The Department of Commerce (DOC) is a Cabinet-level section of the U.S. government that is dedicated to promoting economic growth. The department works to create jobs through sustainable development, economic growth, favorable international trade terms, and the accessibility of high technology. It works closely with businesses, colleges, universities, and cities and towns to achieve those goals.

The Department of Commerce was originally part of the Department of Commerce and Labor, which was established on Feb. 14, 1903, by President Theodore Roosevelt. It became a standalone department when a separate Department of Labor was established on March 4, 1913, by President Howard Taft on his last day in office.

U.S. labor leaders began lobbying for a Department of Labor in the late 1860s, after the Civil War. In 1888, President Chester Arthur established the non-Cabinet level Department of Labor, which was intended to collect information about working people in the United States. In the late 1890s, pressure grew to establish a Department of Commerce to represent the interests of business. Labor leaders had been satisfied with the non-Cabinet department but objected to Cabinet status for business when it was not given to labor.

President Theodore Roosevelt believed that business and labor should work together; so, as pressure for a Department of Commerce grew, he used the opportunity to elevate Labor to Cabinet status as well. Pressure from the labor movement, which felt that business and labor were working in opposition, led to the split of the two departments in 1913.

In 2012, President Barack Obama proposed in his State of the Union address that the Commerce Department be replaced by a new department dedicated to the promotion of trade and exports. That was included in his proposed budget that year, and in each year for the balance of his administration, without success.

Department of Commerce (DOC) Agencies

There are many bureaus and offices within the Department of Commerce (DOC). These include:

  • The Bureau of Census is among the best known as it conducts the decennial count of Americans required by the U.S. Constitution.
  • The U.S. Patent and Trade Office is also mandated by the Constitution. It keeps track of new inventions and discoveries, as well as who has the right to profit from them over a given period. It also enforces and promotes intellectual property rights around the world.
  • The Bureau of Economic Analysis provides a wide range of critical statistical reports on the state of the economy. Among the best-known are the National Income and Production Accounts, which include the gross domestic product.