What is Dual Trading
Dual trading is when a broker simultaneously executes customer orders and places trades in his or her own account, or one in which he or she has a beneficial interest, on the same trading day. This is also known as acting as both an agent and a dealer at the same time. Dual trading is prevalent in the futures market.
BREAKING DOWN Dual Trading
Dual trading is a very controversial issue. Proponents say that when brokers are able to trade in their own accounts as well as those of their customers, they contribute to market performance and liquidity because personal broker trades make up a large portion of trading volume. On the other hand, opponents say that banning dual trading would not affect market liquidity, and would eliminate unlawful trading by removing any conflicts of interest.
Those who are in favor of dual trading argue that it is an important aspect of various markets and that dealer trades are often essential. These proponents insist that trades by dealers are a major part of market activity in any given day. If brokers were restricted to only conducting agent or dealer trades each day, proponents claim, then market activity would be greatly reduced, harming the markets and the economy in general. They also argue that abuse of dual trading is more of a threat than a reality, and that most brokers are able to do what is best for themselves and their clients without a conflict of interests.
Regulation of Dual Trading
Dual trading has been happening in futures exchanges across the United States since organized futures markets got their start in the mid-1880s. Under a dual trader market-making system, market makers are permitted to execute transactions for customers and on personal accounts. With two sources of income to cover the costs of business (commissions and dealer/speculator profits), dual trader markets have greater numbers of market makers than comparable markets who don't allow dual trading. With more market makers, the level of competition for market-making increases, which increases market liquidity and lowers the costs of trading.
There are laws that regulate dual trading in many countries, and in the US, certain conditions must be met by the broker for it to be legal for them to engage in dual trading activity. Certain markets may be more open to dual trading, but opponents of the practice believe that it does not have any inherent benefits for clients of a broker or for the market in general.