What Is the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)?
The term Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) refers to the branch of the Federal Reserve System (FRS) that determines the direction of monetary policy in the United States by directing open market operations (OMOs). The committee is made up of 12 members, including seven members of the Board of Governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and four of the remaining 11 Reserve Bank presidents on a rotating basis.
- The Federal Open Market Committee is a branch of the Federal Reserve System.
- The FOMC determines the direction of monetary policy by directing open market operations.
- The committee is composed of the Board of Governors, which has seven members and five Federal Reserve Bank presidents.
- It has eight regularly scheduled meetings each year that are the subject of speculation on Wall Street.
- Six seats on the FOMC are filled but one remains vacant as of May 2022.
Understanding the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)
The 12 members of the FOMC meet eight times a year to discuss whether there should be any changes to near-term monetary policy. A vote to change policy would result in either buying or selling U.S. government securities on the open market to promote the growth of the national economy. Committee members are typically categorized as hawks favoring tighter monetary policies, doves who favor stimulus, or centrists/moderates who are somewhere in between.
The FOMC chair is also the chair of the Board of Governors. The current makeup of the board is as follows:
- The chair is Jerome Powell, who was sworn in for a second four-year term on May 23, 2022. He began his first term in this role in February 2018. Powell is considered a moderate.
- The vice-chair of the FOMC is Lael Brainard. She was also sworn in to the position on May 23, 2022, for a full four-year term. She joined the board in June 2016.
- Other Federal Reserve Board members include Michelle Bowman, Lisa Cook, Philip Jefferson, and Christopher Waller.
- One seat remains vacant as of May 2022.
There are 12 Federal Reserve districts, each with its own Federal Reserve Bank. These regional banks operate as extensions of the central bank. The president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York serves continuously while the presidents of the others serve one-year terms on a three-year rotating schedule (except for Cleveland and Chicago, which rotate on a two-year basis).
The one-year rotating seats of the FOMC are always comprised of one Reserve Bank president from each of the following groups:
- Boston, Philadelphia, and Richmond
- Cleveland and Chicago
- St. Louis, Dallas, and Atlanta
- Kansas City, Minneapolis, and San Francisco
The geographic-group system helps ensure that all regions of the United States receive fair representation. Here are the current FOMC members:
|Current FOMC Members|
|Jerome H. Powell||Chair of the Federal Reserve Board|
|Lael Brainard||Vice-Chair of Federal Reserve Board|
|Michelle W. Bowman||Member of Federal Reserve Board|
|Lisa D. Cook||Member of Federal Reserve Board|
|Philip N. Jefferson||Member of Federal Reserve Board|
|Christopher J. Waller||Member of Federal Reserve Board|
|Currently Empty||Member of Federal Reserve Board|
|John C. Williams||President of the New York Federal Reserve Bank|
|Thomas I. Barkin||President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond|
|Raphael W. Bostic||President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta|
|Mary C. Daly||President of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco|
|Charles L. Evans||President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago|
|Currently Empty||Vice-Chair of Supervision of Federal Reserve Board|
The FOMC has eight regularly scheduled meetings each year, but they can meet more often if the need should arise. The meetings are not held in public and are therefore the subject of much speculation on Wall Street, as analysts attempt to predict whether the Fed will tighten or loosen the money supply with a resulting increase or decrease in interest rates.
In recent years, FOMC meeting minutes have been made public following the meetings. When it is reported in the news that the Fed changed interest rates, it is the result of the FOMC's regular meetings.
During the meeting, members discuss developments in the local and global financial markets, as well as economic and financial forecasts. All participants—the Board of Governors and all 12 Reserve Bank presidents—share their views on the country’s economic stance and converse on the monetary policy that would be most beneficial for the country. After much deliberation by all participants, only designated FOMC members get to vote on a policy that they consider appropriate for the period.
The Fed announced an increase to the target range of the federal funds rate to 0.75% to 1% after the May 4, 2022, FOMC meeting. The move came after the central bank raised rates for the first time since 2018 in March 2022 from 0% to 0.25% to 0.25% to 0.50%.
The Federal Reserve possesses the tools necessary to increase or decrease the money supply. This is done through OMOs, adjusting the discount rate, and setting bank reserve requirements. The Fed's Board of Governors is in charge of setting the discount rate and reserve requirements, while the FOMC is specifically in charge of OMOs, which entails buying and selling government securities. For example, to tighten the money supply and decrease the amount of money available in the banking system, the Fed would offer government securities for sale.
Securities bought by the FOMC are deposited in the Fed's System Open Market Account (SOMA), which consists of a domestic and a foreign portfolio. The domestic portfolio holds U.S. Treasuries and federal agency securities, while the foreign portfolio holds investments denominated in euros and Japanese yen.
The FOMC can hold these securities until maturity or sell them when they see fit, as granted by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and Monetary Control Act of 1980. A percentage of the Fed's SOMA holdings are held in each of the 12 regional Reserve Banks. However, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York executes all of the Fed's open market transactions.
The process begins with the results of the meeting being communicated to the SOMA manager, who relays them to the trading desk at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, which then conducts transactions of government securities on the open market until the FOMC mandate is met.
The interaction of all of the Fed's policy tools determines the federal funds rate or the rate at which depository institutions lend their balances at the Federal Reserve to each other on an overnight basis. The federal funds rate, in turn, directly influences other short-term rates and indirectly influences long-term interest rates; foreign exchange rates, and the supply of credit and demand for investment, employment, and economic output.
Example of FOMC Policy
On Jan. 29, 2019, at its annual organizational meeting, the FOMC unanimously reaffirmed its "Statement of Longer-Run Goals and Monetary Policy Strategy" with an updated reference to the median of participants' estimates of the longer-run normal rate of unemployment in its "Summary of Economic Projections" (December 2018).
This statement is based on the FOMC's commitment to fulfilling a statutory mandate from Congress to promote maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. Because monetary policy determines the inflation rate over the long term, the FOMC can specify a longer-run goal for inflation. In the statement, the FOMC reaffirmed its analysis that a 2% target inflation rate was the rate most consistent with its statutory mandate.
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Federal Open Market Committee: About the FOMC."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Board Members."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Board System. "Board Members: Jerome H. Powell, Chair."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Board Members: Lael Brainard, Vice Chair."
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "Introduction to the FOMC."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Transcripts and Other Historical Material."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Structure of the Federal Reserve System: Federal Open Market Committee."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "FEDERAL RESERVE Press Release."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Policy Tools: Open Market Operations."
Federal Reserve Bank of New York. "System Open Market Account Holdings of Domestic Securities."
Federal Reserve Bank of New York. "Open Market Operations."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "How Does the Federal Reserve Affect Inflation and Employment?"
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "How Might Increases in the Fed Funds Rate Impact Other Interest Rates?"
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Federal Open Market Committee reaffirms its "Statement on Longer-Run Goals and Monetary Policy Strategy."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Federal Open Market Committee Rules and Authorizations," Page 4.
Federal Reserve System (FRS) Definition
What Central Banks Do
How Central Banks Affect Interest Rates
Financial Regulators: Who They Are and What They Do
Who Determines Interest Rates?
Monetary Policy vs. Fiscal Policy: What's the Difference?
1913 Federal Reserve Act Definition
How the Federal Reserve Was Formed
Federal Reserve Board (FRB) Definition
What Is the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)?
Why Is the Federal Reserve Independent?
What Do the Federal Reserve Banks Do?
The Federal Reserve Chair's Responsibilities
Understanding How the Federal Reserve Creates Money
Understanding the Federal Reserve Balance Sheet
The Reserve Ratio Explained
How Interest Rate Cuts Affect Consumers
How the Fed Funds Rate Hikes Affect the US Dollar
What Are Open Market Operations (OMO)?
What Is a Tight Monetary Policy?
Expansionary Policy Definition