What Is a Foreign Remittance?
Foreign remittance is a transfer of money from a foreign worker to their family or other individuals in their home countries. In many countries, remittance constitutes a significant portion of a nation’s economic growth as measured by gross domestic product (GDP).
The United States is the leading source of sending foreign remittances in 2020, followed by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The top recipients of foreign remittances are India, China, Mexico, and the Philippines. The G8 and World Bank monitor and attempt to regulate remittance costs due to the enormous flow of funds.
- Foreign remittance is a transfer of money from a foreign worker to their family or other individuals in their home countries.
- Foreign remittances transferred back to a migrant's home country are typically used for living expenses, such as food and clothing.
- In April 2020, the World Bank warned that foreign remittances are likely to decline by 20% due to the global economic downturn.
Understanding Foreign Remittances
Foreign remittances that are transferred back to a migrant's home country are typically used for need-based expenses, such as food and clothing. Foreign remittances are the private savings of migrant workers that have left their home country to find work in another country, such as the United States. Emerging economies or developing nations rely heavily on foreign remittances from citizens working abroad.
Although the vast majority of the money from foreign remittances is used to help those in their home country, there are concerns about fraud. Remittance payments can be difficult to track, leading to concerns that the money could be used nefariously for terrorist financing and money laundering. Money laundering is, in part, the process of transferring money earned from illegal acts through legitimate bank accounts to hide the fact that the money was obtained illegally.
Total Amount of Foreign Remittances
Record-high foreign remittances amounting to $548 billion were sent to low- and middle-income countries in 2019 as reported by the World Bank. In 2020, this amount slipped slightly to $540 billion amid the global COVID19 pandemic.
While the World Bank at first predicted that remittances could take a 20% or more hit due to COVID, migrants' desire to send money home to help family members kept remittances strong.
Foreign remittances are a critical financial lifeline for many of the world's working-poor and economically-vulnerable countries.
Benefits of Foreign Remittances
Many economists and social scientists believe that since remittances are so widespread, they have implications that extend beyond an individual’s finances. For example, since remitting involves financial institutions, people who send and receive remittances are likely to have bank accounts, which promotes economic development.
Remittances can be lifesaving in emergencies, such as natural disasters and armed conflicts, when the recipients' other sources of income disappear. Also, if the home country experiences an economic downturn, remittances can help to alleviate economic hardship.
Foreign Remittance Software Apps
Several tech startups have developed software applications (or apps) to facilitate foreign remittances by making the process more user-friendly, as well as removing the high costs associated with some of the traditional formats such as MoneyGram and Western Union. Typically, foreign remittance fees through traditional banks average 11% of the transfer amount, according to the World Bank.
Two such examples are Wise (formerly TransferWise) and Sendwave (formerly Wave). Both apps charge relatively low fees and exist outside of traditional banks. Also, both companies are focused on encrypting financial messages so that users' data is safe and not vulnerable to hackers.
Wise (formerly known as TransferWise) is based in London and operates as a licensed and regulated U.K. Financial Services institution. TransferWise began with the premise that sending money abroad is deceptively expensive, given significant hidden charges. To eliminate additional fees, TransferWise boasts that the company uses real exchange rates or as they call mid-market rates, which are designed to have less of a mark-up built into the rates.
Wise sends $5 billion in payments each month on behalf of their more than 10 million customers. The company also offers a multi-currency account allowing people to receive and send in a foreign currency. Wise charges a small fee for using its platform, which varies depending on the currency being transferred.
The company was founded in March 2010 by Taavet Hinrikus and Kristo Kaarmann. The executive team had experience spanning startups, international operations, and financial services.
Sendwave formerly known as Wave) has a similar model to TransferWise but specializes in handling transfers from the U.S., U.K., and Canada to East and West Africa, including Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. Sendwave is able to facilitate an international transfer in 30 seconds from a sender’s smartphone to recipients' mobile wallets. Wave boasts over 100,000 customers on its website and charges a 1% fee for each transfer.
Other remittance apps include Western Union, WorldRemit, and OFX. Increasingly, people are also using cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin to send money overseas.