What Is the Oman Rial (OMR)?
OMR is the currency code for the Omani rial. The OMR is the national currency of the Sultanate of Oman, located on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The Omani rial is made up of 1,000 baisa. The Central Bank of Oman pegs the value of the Omani rial at $2.6008 (USD).
- The Omani rial uses currency code OMR and is the currency of the Sultanate of Oman.
- The OMR is pegged to the U.S. dollar at an exchange rate of 1 rial to US$2.6008.
- Oman is heavily dependent on oil exports and is attempting to diversify its economy.
Understanding the Oman Rial (OMR)
The Central Bank of Oman pegs the value of the Omani rial to the U.S. dollar (USD) at a fixed exchange rate. Between 1973 and 1985 the rate held at 1 rial to $2.895 but changed to $2.6008 in 1986. The dollar peg keeps the value of the rial stable and protects it against the volatility which small, trade-and-resource-based economies like Oman’s can experience.
Circulation of the OMR is in banknotes and coins. Banknote denominations are 100 and 200 baisas, and 1/2, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 rials. Coins have denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 baisas, and 1/4 and 1/2 rials.
Oman is heavily dependent on oil, making the economy and the currency heavily influenced by the price of oil. Like many oil-rich nations, Oman is attempting to diversify its economy away from its dependence on oil. Omani officials are directing particular attention to manufacturing, tourism, and logistics, given its coastal geography at a critical crossroads of the world.
Until Oman can achieve a more diversified economy, with a more developed financial system, it is likely that the Omani rial will remain pegged to the dollar.
The country has seen significant swings in inflation, with some years seeing double digit rises and other years seeing close to double digit drops.
History of the OMR
Oman sits on the Strait of Hormuz at the Persian Gulf and is key to stability in the region. Before 1970, Oman did not have a national currency. Earlier, the area, then known as Muscat and Oman, used the Indian rupee (INR) and the Maria Theresa thaler, with the currencies seeing circulation in different regions.
Beginning in 1970, the OMR was known as the rial Saidi and had a value equal to the British pound (GBP). This currency became popular and replaced the Indian rupee in coastal regions. By 1973 the currency was replaced by rial Omani (at par) and became the predominant form of money. OMR became the currency of Oman after Sultan Qaboos bin Said officially changed the name of the country to the Sultanate of Oman.
The most notable development in the history of the Omani rial took place in 1970, when Sultan Qaboos bin Said assumed power after overthrowing and exiling his father Sultan Said bin Taimur. The change in leadership followed a palace coup.
Subsequently, Qaboos bin Said embarked on a program of economic and social reform. His reforms included the establishment of a national currency and the establishment of the Central Bank of Oman in 1974. The central bank issues and manages the Omani rial.
The exchange rate of OMR against currencies other than the U.S. dollar will fluctuate because the OMR is not pegged to those currencies.
OMR Currency Fluctuations
The exchange rate of OMR versus the USD (OMR/USD) is subject to very little fluctuation since the rate is pegged at $2.6008 per rial. But the rate against other currencies will fluctuate because the OMR is not pegged to those currencies.
Let's say that a traveler is looking up rates for traveling to Oman from Canada. They are interested in the OMR/CAD rate, or how many Canadian dollars (CAD) it takes to buy one OMR.
Back in 2014, the traveler could have gotten a rate of around 2.80, which means it costs C$2.80 (Canadian dollars) for one rial. In early 2016 the rate rose above C$3.70. It cost more CAD to buy one OMR, which means the OMR appreciated against the CAD or the CAD depreciated against the OMR.
The years 2016 through 2018 saw the rate stabilize between those lows and highs, staying largely between C$3.50 and C$3.10. As the rate dropped from C$3.70 to C$3.10, the OMR was depreciating against the CAD, or the CAD was appreciating against the OMR, because it was costing less CAD to buy one OMR. As of July 12, 2022, one Omani rial equals C$3.38