What Is the South African Rand (ZAR)?
The South African rand (ZAR) is the national currency of the country of South Africa, with the symbol ZAR being the currency abbreviation for the rand in foreign exchange (forex) markets.
The South African rand is made up of 100 cents and is often presented with the symbol R. The rand comes from the word "Witwatersrand," which means "white waters ridge." Johannesburg, the location of a majority of South Africa's gold deposits, is located on this ridge.
- The South African rand (ZAR) is the national currency of the country of South Africa.
- The rand was introduced in February 1961 and mostly held a steady peg against the US dollar until the end of apartheid.
- Since then, its value has depreciated as the South African economy has become increasingly linked to the rest of the world.
- Several countries in the region peg their national currencies to the rand.
Understanding the South African Rand
The South African rand was first introduced in February 1961, just before the Republic of South Africa was established. The rand replaced the South African pound at a rate of 2 rand to 1 pound.
Up until the early 1970s, the rand was worth around R1.5 per U.S. dollar. However, over the ensuing decades, the rand has depreciated at a rapid rate, with substantial moves at the turn of the 21st century and during the Great Recession.
As the political landscape changed in the early 1990s, uncertainty saw the rand slowly depreciate to record low levels. The fall was exasperated when in 2001 the land reforms began to kick off. Soon after, the September 11 attacks saw global uncertainty hit and the rand took another steep dive, falling to R13 per U.S. dollar.
Krugerrands are gold coins that were minted by the Republic of South Africa in 1967 to help promote South African gold to the international markets and to make it possible for individuals to own gold. Krugerrands are among the most frequently traded gold coins in the world market.
The coins still have legal tender status in South Africa, although Krugerrands were never assigned a rand value. Krugerrands were designed to derive their value exclusively from the price of gold at the time they are traded. If the price of gold changes, so does the price of Krugerrands.
The South African Reserve Bank
Modeled on the Bank of England (BoE), the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) stands as the monetary authority for South Africa and issues its currency. Taking on major responsibilities similar to those of other central banks, the SARB is also known as a creditor in certain situations, a clearing bank, and a major custodian of gold.
Above all else, the central bank is in charge of the achievement and maintenance of price stability. This also includes intervention in the forex markets when necessary.
Interestingly, the SARB remains a wholly-owned private entity with more than 800 shareholders, who are regulated by owning less than 1% of the total number of outstanding shares. This is to ensure that the interests of the economy precede those of any private individual. To maintain this policy, the governor and 14-member board head the bank's activities and work toward monetary goals. The board meets regularly during the year.
The Rand Monetary Area
The establishment of the Rand Monetary Area (RMA) in 1974 allowed Swaziland, Botswana, and Lesotho to issue currencies unique to their nations. Before the agreement, these countries had participated in an informal arrangement among the same countries where only the South African currency circulated. Through the RMA agreement, the South African rand remained legal tender in all member nations and circulated alongside the national money of the member nations. Botswana withdrew from the agreement in 1975.
In 1986, following the substantial depreciation of the rand, the countries replaced the RMA with the Common Monetary Area (CMA) to manage monetary policy. The CMA and the Southern African Customs Union work together to help member nations. The terms of the new agreement provided Swaziland (now Eswatini) additional flexibility in its monetary policy.
The Rand's Fluctuating Fortunes
For the most part, the rand's value was linked to the price of gold, South Africa's main export, during its early days. But major world developments have also determined ZAR's price trajectory. After steadying through the early parts of the century, the rand was one of many emerging market currencies that plummeted during the financial crisis. As investors flocked to safe-haven currencies such as the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen, emerging market currencies suffered. In the span of 12-months, the rand fell by nearly 50% against the U.S. dollar.
Today, the rand is somewhat correlated with gold prices as the South African economy is reliant on its gold exports. However, as a fragile economy and unstable political landscape, the rand is at the mercy of global uncertainty.
The figures depicted in the rand's banknotes reflect South Africa's shifting identity and priorities, political and otherwise. Up until the 1990s, the rand mainly contained photos of people and notable leaders from the apartheid regime. After the dismantling of the apartheid system, photos of wildlife figures were also included. In 2012, a rand banknote containing a picture of ANC leader Nelson Mandela was released.