What is General And Administrative Expense (G&A)
General and administrative expenses (G&A) are expenditures related to the day-to-day operations of a business. General and administrative expenses pertain to operation expenses rather than to expenses that can be directly related to the production of any goods or services, including rent, utilities, insurance, and managerial salaries. On the company's income statement, these expenses generally appear under operating expenses.
BREAKING DOWN General And Administrative Expense (G&A)
General and administrative expenses occur independently of sales activity. Even in the absence of any sales, general and administrative expenses occur. These types of expenses are listed below cost of goods sold on a consolidated income statement. Many general and administrative expenses are fixed dollar amounts and are not easily attributable to cost-reduction strategies. General and administrative expenses allow for a business to operate, whereas operating expenses are necessary for the production and sale of specific goods or services.
Examples of General and Administrative Expenses
Examples of general and administrative expenses include building rent, consultant fees, depreciation on office equipment, insurance, supplies, subscriptions, and utilities. Salary and benefits attributable to corporate management, as well as any legal staff, are also classified as general and administrative expenses. Expenditures for research and development are usually aggregated in a different expense category.
G&A Expenses on an Income Statement
The top aggregated line item on a statement of income is always net revenues. The total cost of goods sold is deducted from this figure to determine the gross margin. The general and administrative expenses are always deducted from the gross margin in a consolidated income statement to arrive at net income. Not all general and administrative expenses are grouped under one category; for example, fees and interest are often classified as their own line item when deducting expenses to arrive at net income.
Cost Reduction Strategies
Because G&A expenses do not directly tie to the production or sale of a product or service, management has strong incentive to minimize these types of expenses. Companies with centralized management typically experience higher general and administrative costs compared to companies with decentralized management structures. The sales to administrative expense ratio compares the revenue generated to the amount of expenses supporting company’s operations.
G&A Tax Implications
Most general and administrative expenses incurred can be deducted from the entity’s tax return provided the expenses are reasonable, ordinary, and necessary. Items, such as salaries and rent, must be deducted for the year incurred. Long-term expenses, which benefit multiple periods, are deducted over the relevant period.