What is Group of 77
The Group of 77 is the largest intergovernmental organization of developing nations in the United Nations. It was created on June 15, 1964, and has since expanded to 130 members. The group enables countries to jointly leverage their negotiating capacity related to major international economic issues within the U.N. and "promote their collective economic interests." The group also works to more rapidly facilitate South-South cooperative efforts to foster development. The group held its first meeting on October 25, 1967. The result of the initial meeting was a proposed institutional structure dubbed the "Charter of Algiers." The Group of 77 is also known as the G-77.
BREAKING DOWN Group of 77
The Group of 77 has liaison offices located in Geneva (UNCTAD), Nairobi (UNEP), Paris (UNESCO), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO) and Washington, D.C. (IMF and World Bank). Member countries finance the group's activities through contributions.
The function and operation of the G-77 is unified by membership, decision-making and certain operating methods. A chairman, who acts as spokesman, coordinates the group’s action in each chapter. The chairmanship, which is the highest political body within the organizational structure of the Group of 77, rotates on a regional basis (between Africa, Asia-Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean). The chairman term is for one year in all the chapters. Currently, the Arab Republic of Egypt holds the chairmanship of the Group of 77 for the year 2018.
The South Summit is the supreme decision-making body of the Group of 77. The First and the Second South Summits were held in Havana, Cuba, on April 10 to 14, 2000, and in Doha, Qatar, on June 12 to 16, 2005, respectively. In accordance with the principle of geographical rotation, the third South Summit is due to be held in Africa.
Group of 77 Meetings and Functions
The annual meeting of the ministers for foreign affairs of the Group of 77 is held at the beginning of the regular session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York. Periodically, sectoral ministerial meetings in preparation for UNCTAD sessions and the general conferences of UNIDO and UNESCO are convened. Special ministerial meetings are also called as needed such as on the occasion of the group’s 25th anniversary (Caracas, June 1989), 30th anniversary (New York, June 1994), and 40th anniversary (Sao Paulo, Brazil, June 2004). Other sectoral ministerial meetings of interest are convened, in order to pursue cooperation.
The Group of 77 also contributes to various main committees of the General Assembly, ECOSOC and other subsidiary bodies. It also sponsors and negotiates resolutions and decisions at major conferences and other meetings held under the umbrella of the United Nations.