The Group of 77 (G-77)

What Is the Group of 77 (G-77)?

The Group of 77 (G-77) is the name given to the largest intergovernmental group of emerging countries in the United Nations. The group was established in 1964 and is made up of more than 130 different nations. Its goal is to help developing nations promote their economic interests and to foster cooperation among developing economies in the Global South. The G-77 is guided by a charter that was established and adopted in 1967. The G-77 has offices around the world and meets annually at the UN in New York.

Key Takeaways

  • The Group of 77 refers to the largest intergovernmental group of emerging countries in the United Nations.
  • The group was established with 77 members in 1964 and is now made up of 134 member countries.
  • The goal of the G-77 is to foster economic cooperation among members and to promote development.
  • The Group of 77 is guided by the Charter of Algiers, which acts as its institutional structure.
  • The group meets annually at the UN in New York.

Understanding the Group of 77 (G-77)

As noted above, the Group of 77 is an intergovernmental group formed by United Nations member states. It was established on June 15, 1967, by 77 developing nations that signed the Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Developing Countries in Geneva. These countries adopted the Charter of Algiers on Oct. 25, 1967, which became its institutional structure.

The group expanded its membership beyond the original number and now includes 134 different countries. According to its website, the aim of the G-77 is to provide:

...the means for the countries of the South to articulate and promote their collective economic interests and enhance their joint negotiating capacity on all major international economic issues within the United Nations system, and promote South-South cooperation for development.

The United Nations in New York is home to the Group of 77’s annual meeting of the ministers for foreign affairs. This event is held at the start of the General Assembly’s regular session. Special ministerial meetings can be called on an ad-hoc basis. For example, the group may convene for the purposes of recognizing the milestone anniversaries of its founding.

The Group of 77 also contributes to various main committees of the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, and other subsidiary bodies. It also sponsors and negotiates resolutions and decisions at major conferences and other meetings held under the umbrella of the United Nations.

Pakistan chairs the Group of 77 in New York for 2022.

Special Considerations

The G-77 has liaison offices in:

  • Washington, D.C. (IMF and World Bank)
  • Geneva (UNCTAD)
  • Paris (UNESCO)
  • Vienna (UNIDO)
  • Nairobi (UNEP)
  • Rome (FAO/IFAD)

Member countries finance the group's activities through contributions. All G-77 chapters are unified by a chair, who coordinates all activities and functions as a spokesperson for the group. This leadership role is annually rotated.

The chief decision-making exercise of the Group of 77 is known as the South Summit. The first such summit was held in Havana, Cuba, in April 2000. The second summit took place in Doha, Qatar in June 2005. The third South Summit will be held in Kampala, Uganda, at a yet-to-be-determined date.

The Group of 77 (G-77) Nations

The following is a full list of the countries that make up the G-77:

Group of 77: A - L
Afghanistan  Bolivia  China  Ecuador  Guatemala  Kenya 
Algeria  Botswana  Colombia  Egypt  Guinea  Kiribati 
Angola  Brazil  Comoros  El Salvador  Guinea-Bissau   Kuwait 
Antigua and Barbuda  Brunei Darussalam  Congo  Equatorial Guinea  Guyana  Lao People's Democratic Republic  
Argentina  Burkina Faso  Costa Rica  Eritrea   Haiti  Lebanon 
Azerbaijan  Burundi  Côte d'Ivoire   Eswatini   Honduras  Lesotho 
Bahamas  Cabo Verde  Cuba Ethiopia   India  Liberia 
Bahrain  Cambodia  Democratic People's Republic of Korea   Fiji  Indonesia  Libya 
Bangladesh  Cameroon  Democratic Republic of the Congo Gabon  Iran   
Belize  Central African Republic  Djibouti  Gambia  Iraq   
Benin Chad Dominica Ghana Jamaica
Bhutan Chile Dominican Republic Grenada Jordan
Group of 77: M - Z
Madagascar  Mozambique  Panama  Sao Tome and Principe   State of Palestine  Turkmenistan 
Malawi  Myanmar  Papua New Guinea  Saudi Arabia  Sudan  Uganda 
Malaysia  Namibia  Paraguay  Senegal  Suriname  United Arab Emirates 
Maldives  Nauru  Peru  Seychelles  Syrian Arab Republic  United Republic of Tanzania  
Mali  Nepal  Philippines  Sierra Leone  Tajikistan  Uruguay 
Marshall Islands  Nicaragua  Qatar  Singapore  Thailand  Vanuatu 
Mauritania  Niger  Rwanda  Solomon Islands  Timor-Leste  Venezuela 
Mauritius  Nigeria  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Somalia  Togo  Vietnam 
Micronesia  Oman  Saint Lucia  South Africa  Tonga  Yemen 
Mongolia  Pakistan  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  South Sudan  Trinidad and Tobago  Zambia 
Morocco  Panama  Samoa  Sri Lanka  Tunisia  Zimbabwe 
Source: The Group of 77 at the United Nations

The Group of 77 (G-77) vs. The Group of Seven (G-7)

The G-77 is just one of the intergovernmental groups represented by member states at the UN. The group that is most commonly known is the Group of Seven (G-7). The G-7 is made up of the world's most developed economies, including Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Leaders of the G-7 meet regularly to discuss pressing economic and international issues.

The group's origins date back to the early 1970s. At that time, leaders from France, Japan, the U.S, the U.K., and West Germany met to discuss key international issues. Italy joined the group in 1975, followed by Canada the next year. The European Union (EU) came on as a de facto member in 1977.

The group was known as the Group of Eight (G-8) and included Russia when it joined in 1988. The country's membership in the group was suspended in 2014 after it invaded Ukraine.

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  2. The Group of 77 at the United Nations. "Schedule of Major Meetings."

  3. Vienna Chapter. "THE GROUP OF 77 (G-77)."

  4. The Federal Government G7 Germany. "The history of the G7."

  5. Government of Canada. "Canada and the G7."

  6. Council On Foreign Relations. "Where Is The G7 Headed?"