What Is the Hersey-Blanchard Model?
The Hersey-Blanchard Model suggests that there is no single leadership style that is better than another. Instead of focusing on workplace factors, the model suggests leaders adjust their styles to the followers and their abilities.
Under the model, successful leadership is both task-relevant and relationship-relevant. It is an adaptive, flexible style, whereby leaders are encouraged to consider their followers—individuals or a team—then consider the factors that affect the work environment before choosing how they will lead. This ensures they will meet their goals.
Because the Hersey-Blanchard model depends on a leader's decision-making skills, it uses an individualistic rather than a group approach.
The Hersey-Blanchard Model is also referred to as the Situational Leadership Model or Theory.
Understanding the Hersey-Blanchard Model
The Hersey-Blanchard Model, or situational leadership, was developed by author Paul Hersey, and leadership expert Ken Blanchard, author of "The One Minute Manager." The model is not a static leadership style. Instead, it is flexible, wherein the manager adapts management style to various factors in the workplace including his or her relationship with other employees.
That means managers who live by the model must choose the leadership style as it relates to the maturity of followers. For example, if follower maturity is high, the model suggests the leader provide minimal guidance. By contrast, if follower maturity is low, the manager may need to provide explicit directions and supervise work closely in order to ensure the group has clarity on their goals and how they are expected to achieve them.
The maturity level of followers is divided into three categories: high, moderate, and low. High maturity includes highly capable and confident individuals who are experienced and work well on their own. Moderate maturity is generally divided into two groups—the first are employees who are capable, but lack enough confidence to take on the responsibility to do so, and the second has the confidence but is not willing to do the task at hand. Low maturity employees are not skilled enough to do the task but are very enthusiastic.
Hersey-Blanchard Model and Leadership Styles
Hersey and Blanchard came up with four different types of leadership styles based on the task and relationships that leaders experience in the workplace. According to the model, the following are styles of leadership managers can use:
- Delegating style: A low-task, low-relationship style wherein the leader allows the group to take responsibility for task decisions. This is best used with high maturity followers.
- Participating style: A low-task, high-relationship style that emphasizes shared ideas and decisions. Managers using the participating style tend to use it with moderate followers who are not only experienced but with those who aren't as confident to do the tasks assigned.
- Selling style: Refers to a high-task, high-relationship style, in which the leader attempts to sell his ideas to the group by explaining task directions in a persuasive manner. This, too, is used with moderate followers. Unlike the previous style, these followers have the ability but are unwilling to do the job.
- Telling style: Refers a high-task, low-relationship style wherein the leader gives explicit directions and supervises work closely. This style is geared toward low maturity followers.
- The Hersey-Blanchard Model suggests no leadership style is better than another.
- The model suggests managers adapt their leadership style to tasks and relationships in the workplace.
- The model's leadership styles are related directly to the different maturity categories of followers or employees.
Applying the Model and Its Limitations
This leadership method lets executives, managers, and other positions of authority take charge of their followers based on the acumen, understanding, and context of the group. By taking into consideration how the strengths, weaknesses, and awareness of the followers can affect their performance and the outcomes of the project, leaders can apply an appropriate structure and degree of control to achieve the desired result.
There are limitations to the model that may be beyond the leader’s control. The position and authority of the leader may be restricted by the operational chain-of-command or hierarchy for an organization, which could force them to adopt rigid styles rather than adapt to follower maturity. Furthermore, time constraints, a narrow field of options, and limits on available assets can also force managers to act based on the circumstances they face, eliminating the possibility of enacting strategies built around follower maturity.
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Hersey-Blanchard Model
Although this leadership model may be sound, in theory, it may not necessarily be applicable in every situation. So, it comes with advantages and disadvantages.
Some of the advantages of using an adaptive leadership style are that leaders can change their style at their own discretion at any time. Secondly, employees may find a leader who adapts to shifting changes in the workforce as a desirable trait. It is also a simple and easy-to-apply leadership style, meaning a manager can quickly evaluate a situation and make decisions as he or she sees fit.
On the downside, situational leadership may put too much responsibility on the manager, whose decisions may be flawed. The model may not also be applicable to different cultures. The model may also prioritize relationships and tasks, as opposed to a company's long-term goals.