What Is an Insurance Claim?

An insurance claim is a formal request by a policyholder to an insurance company for coverage or compensation for a covered loss or policy event. The insurance company validates the claim (or denies the claim). If it is approved, the insurance company will issue payment to the insured or an approved interested party on behalf of the insured.

Insurance claims cover everything from death benefits on life insurance policies to routine and comprehensive medical exams. In some cases, a third-party is able to file claims on behalf of the insured person. However, in the majority of cases, only the person(s) listed on the policy is entitled to claim payments.

Key Takeaways

  • An insurance claim is a formal request by a policyholder to an insurance company for coverage or compensation for a covered loss or policy event.
  • The insurance company validates the claim and, once approved, issues payment to the insured or an approved interested party on behalf of the insured.
  • For property casualty insurance, such as for your car or home, filing a claim can cause rate hikes to your future premiums.
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Insurance Claim

How an Insurance Claim Works

A paid insurance claim serves to indemnify a policyholder against financial loss. An individual or group pays premiums as consideration for the completion of an insurance contract between the insured party and an insurance carrier. The most common insurance claims involve costs for medical goods and services, physical damage, loss of life, and liability for the ownership of dwellings (homeowners, landlords, and renters) and liability resulting from the operation of automobiles.

For property and causality insurance policies, regardless of the scope of an accident or who was at fault, the number of insurance claims you file has a direct impact on the rate you pay to gain coverage (typically through installment payments called insurance premiums). The greater the number of claims that are filed by a policyholder, the greater the likelihood of a rate hike. In some cases, it's possible if you file too many claims that the insurance company may decide to deny you coverage.

If the claim is being filed based on the damage to property that you caused, your rates will almost surely rise. On the other hand, if you aren't at fault, your rates may or may not increase. For example, getting hit from behind when your car is parked or having siding blow off your house during a storm are both events that are clearly not the result of the policyholder.

However, mitigating circumstances, such as the number of previous claims you have filed, the number of speeding tickets you have received, the frequency of natural disasters in your area (earthquakes, hurricanes, floods) and even a low credit rating can all cause your rates to go up, even if the latest claim was made for damage you didn't cause.

When it comes to insurance rate increases, not all claims are created equal. Dog bites, slip-and-fall personal injury claims, water damage, and mold can all act as signals of future liability for an insurer. These items tend to have a negative impact on your rates and on your insurer's willingness to continue providing coverage. Surprisingly, speeding tickets may not cause a rate hike at all. At least for your first speeding ticket, many companies will not increase your prices. The same goes for a minor automobile accident or a small claim against your homeowner's insurance policy.

Types of Insurance Claims

Health Insurance Claims

Costs for surgical procedures or inpatient hospital stays remain prohibitively expensive. Individual or group health policies indemnify patients against financial burdens that may otherwise cause crippling financial damage. Health insurance claims filed with carriers by providers on behalf of policyholders require little effort from patients; the majority of medical are adjudicated electronically.

Policyholders must file paper claims when medical providers do not participate in electronic transmittals but charges result from rendered covered services. Ultimately, an insurance claim protects an individual from the prospect of large financial burdens resulting from an accident or illness.

Property and Casualty Claims

A house is typically one of the largest assets an individual will purchase in their lifetime. A claim filed for damage from covered perils is initially routed via the Internet to a representative of an insurer, commonly referred to as an agent or claims adjuster.

Unlike health insurance claims, the onus is on the policyholder to report damage of a deeded property they own. An adjuster, depending on the type of claim, inspects and assesses damage to property for payment to the insured. Upon verification of the damage, the adjuster initiates the process of compensating or reimbursing the insured.

Life Insurance Claims

Life insurance claims require the submission of a claim form, a death certificate, and oftentimes the original policy. The process, especially for large face value policies, may require in-depth examination by the carrier to ensure that the death of the insured did not fall under a contract exclusion, such as suicide (usually excluded for the first few years after policy inception) or death resulting from a criminal act.

Generally, the process takes approximately 30 to 60 days without extenuating circumstances, affording beneficiaries the financial wherewithal to replace the income of the deceased or simply cover the burden of final expenses.

Filing an insurance claim may raise future insurance premiums.

Special Considerations

There are no hard-and-fast rules around rate hikes. What one company forgives, another won't forget. Because any claim at all may pose a risk to your rates, understanding your policy is the first step toward protecting your wallet. If you know your first accident is forgiven or a previously filed claim won't count against you after a certain number of years, the decision of whether or not to file a claim can be made with advance knowledge of the impact it will or won't have on your rates.

Talking to your agent about the insurance company's policies long before you need to file a claim is also important. Some agents are obligated to report you to the company if you even discuss a potential claim and choose not to file. For this reason, you also don't want to wait until you need to file a claim to inquire about your insurer's policy regarding consultation with your agent.

Regardless of your situation, minimizing the number of claims you file is the key to protecting your insurance rates from a substantial increase. A good rule to follow is to only file a claim in the event of catastrophic loss. If your car gets a dent on the bumper or a few shingles blow off of the roof on your house, you may be better off if you take care of the expense on your own.

If your car is totaled in an accident or the entire roof of your house caves in, filing a claim becomes a more economically feasible exercise. Just keep in mind that even though you have coverage and have paid your premiums on time for years, your insurance company can still decline to renew your coverage when your policy expires.