What does 'Issue' mean

An issue is the process of offering securities as an attempt to raise funds. Companies may issue bonds or stocks to investors as a method of financing the business. The term "issue" also refers to a series of stocks or bonds that have been offered to the public, and typically relates to the set of instruments that were released under one offering.

BREAKING DOWN 'Issue'

The issuance of securities can take many forms. Companies may have a new issue, in which they release a security for the first time, or a seasoned issue, in which an established firm offers additional shares. For example, if a company sells a group of 10-year bonds to the public, that set of bonds will be referred to as a single issue.

If a company needs capital to stay in business, it has options to secure funding through selling stocks or issuing bonds. In a secondary stock offering, the board of directors (BOD) votes to issue more shares and increase the number of shares available in the market for trading. The proceeds from selling additional shares to the public goes directly to the company.

Likewise, if a business wants to move existing debt and create new debt at the same time, it might decide to issue bonds. The company borrows money from investors and repays it with interest. The interest is a tax-deductible expense that reduces the corporation’s cost of borrowing.

Factors in Issuing Stocks or Bonds

Companies need to consider business goals when deciding whether to sell stock or to issue bonds. Issuing stocks or bonds in order to raise capital for projects change the capital structure of a firm which is comprised of debt and equity. How weighted a company's structure is in either debt or capital determines the cost of capital for the company. The cost of issuing debt is the interest rate that the issuing company has to periodically pay its investors and lenders. The cost of issuing equity is dividend payments. Finding a good balance between both types of securities can help a firm avoid paying a high cost of capital.

Money from stock does not need to be repaid, nor does interest (or dividends) need to be paid, as it does with bonds. Since each issue of stock changes an investor's ownership in the company, there is a limit to how much stock a company can issue. However, corporations can issue bonds as long as investors are willing to act as lenders. Because companies can pay bondholders a lower interest rate and retain greater control over funding, issuing bonds is less expensive than borrowing from a bank. Bonds do not change the ownership or operation of a company that is owned, while selling stock does. Recordkeeping is simpler with bondholders, as all bonds with the same issuance earn the same interest rate and have the same maturity date. Bond offerings are also more flexible than stock issuance.

Stock and Bond Underwriting

Companies issuing stocks and bonds may use investment banks to facilitate the process. For example, if a company decides to sell bonds, the investment bank determines the value and riskiness of the corporation, and then determines the prices, and underwrites and sells the bonds to the public. Investment banks might also underwrite stocks or other securities for an initial public offering (IPO) or secondary public offering.

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