What Are Mini-Miranda Rights?
Mini-Miranda rights are a set of statements that a debt collector must use when contacting an individual to collect a debt. Mini-Miranda rights have to be recited, by law, if the debt collection effort is being made over the phone or in-person and outlined in written form if a letter is sent to the debtor.
If the collection agency phones the debtor, the Mini-Miranda rights require the collector to inform the debtor that the call is from a debt collector, that they are calling to collect a debt, and that any information obtained during the phone call will be used to achieve this goal.
- Mini-Miranda rights are a colloquialism for the legally-mandated statements that must be made by debt collectors when they attempt to collect on a debt.
- Like traditional Miranda rights that inform arrestees of their rights and provide information about why they are being arrested, Mini-Miranda rights provide information about the debt being collected and who is seeking it.
- These rights and related information are set out by law in the U.S. in the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) of 1977
Understanding Mini-Miranda Rights
Mini-Miranda prevents a debt collector from using false pretenses in furtherance of collecting a debt. For instance, a heavily indebted person may use a fictitious name when answering the phone to avoid calls from collection agencies. While an easy solution for a debt collector would be to not reveal their true identity and the purpose of the call so as to get through to the indebted person, the Mini-Miranda specifically prohibits the use of such tactics.
Mini-Miranda is not an official term, but rather a colloquialism. It gets its name from the Miranda rights or Miranda Warning, used by law-enforcement officers when they collar a suspect in a crime. The actual Miranda Warning states that the suspect has the right to remain silent, that anything said by the suspect can and will be used against them in a court of law, and that the suspect has the right to an attorney.
Just as the Miranda Warning came about to protect suspects from intimidation efforts by law-enforcement officers, the Mini-Miranda was introduced to safeguard consumers from abusive debt collection practices. This was specified in the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) of 1977, also known as Regulation F, a federal law prohibiting debt collectors from using harassment, threats, deceit, or intimidation to collect debts.1 More recently, however, the federal government's Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, issued further clarification of the FDCPA rules in November of 2020, which will become effective on November 21, 2021.
Mini-Miranda Rights Requirements
Aside from what's already been mentioned, the FDCPA also specifies the time of day and frequency with which contact can be made between a debt collector and debtor. For example, debt collectors should not contact debtors at inconvenient times (i.e., significantly outside of business hours) unless a prior arrangement has been made.
If the FDCPA is violated, a suit may be brought against the debt collection company, along with the individual debt collector, within one year of the violation.
Furthermore, while debt collectors may call a debtor’s place of business or home, the debtor can put a stop to this by filing a written request to cease calling one or both locations. In such cases, a collector is permitted to call relatives, neighbors, or associates of the debtor regarding the outstanding balance owed.