Monetary Control Act

DEFINITION of 'Monetary Control Act'

The Monetary Control Act is a two-title act passed in 1980 that changed bank regulations significantly. The act was signed in by Jimmy Carter on March 31, 1980. 

BREAKING DOWN 'Monetary Control Act'

The Monetary Control Act was legislation that changed banking considerably in the early 1980s, and it represented the first significant reform in the banking industry since the Great Depression.

The Monetary Control Act of 1980 (MAC) required that banks accepting deposits from the public periodically report to the Federal Reserve System (FRS). One of the aims of the act was to put tighter controls on Federal Reserve member banks, making services charged to them in line with banks and other financial institutions.

Prior to the act, certain services charged to the member banks were free, but the act ensued the price of financial services to be competitive, and in line with the banks. Starting in September 1981, the Fed charged banks for a range of services historically provided for free, like check-clearing, wire transfer of funds and the use of automated clearinghouse facilities. 

Title 2 of the Monetary Control Act (MAC) 

Title 2 of this act was the Depository Institutions Deregulation Act of 1980. This legislation deregulated banks, while simultaneously giving the Fed more control of non-member banks

It required non-member banks to abide by Federal Reserve decisions but, perhaps most notably, the bill allowed banks to merge. It also deregulated interest rates paid by depository institutions such as banks, making them a matter of private discretion (previously this was regulated under the Glass-Steagall Act). It allowed credit unions to offer transaction accounts, which included checking accounts and savings accounts. The bill also opened the Fed discount window and extended reserve requirements to all domestic banks.

The Monetary Control Act also contained several provisions relating to bank reserve and deposit requirements. It created the popular Negotiable Order of Withdrawal (NOW) accounts, which are accounts that have no limits on the number of checks that can be written. Additionally, it raised the amount of FDIC insurance protection from $40,000 to $100,000 per account.