What is 'Net Investment Income (NII)'

Net investment income (NII) is income received from investment assets (before taxes) such as bonds, stocks, mutual funds, loans and other investments (less related expenses). The individual tax rate on net investment income depends on whether it is interest income, dividend income or capital gains.

BREAKING DOWN 'Net Investment Income (NII)'

When investors sell assets from their portfolios, the proceeds from the transaction results in either a realized gain or loss. The realized gains could be capital gains from selling a stock; interest income received from fixed income products; dividends paid to shareholders of a company; rental income received from property; certain annuity payments; royalty payments; etc. The difference between any realized gains (before taxes are applied) and trade commissions or fees is the net investment income (NII). NII could be either positive or negative depending on whether the asset was sold for a capital gain or loss.

For example, an individual sells 100 shares of AAPL and 50 shares of NFLX for $175/share and $170/share. He also received coupon payments for the year on his corporate bonds in the sum of $2,650, in addition to rental income of $16,600. His net investment income can be calculated as:

Capital gain from AAPL:

(Sale Price 175 – Cost 140) x 100

$ 3,500

Capital loss from NFLX:

(Sale Price 170 – Cost 200) x 50

 (1,500)

Brokerage commissions

      (35)

Interest income

   2,650

Rental income

 16,600

Tax preparation fees

    (160)

Net Investment Income

$21,055

Taxing Net Investment Income

The net investment income is subject to a 3.8% tax and applies to individuals with an NII and modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) above the thresholds in the table below:

Filing status

MAGI Limit ($)

Single

200,000

Head of Household

200,000

Married filing separately

125,000

Married filing jointly

250,000

Qualified widow(er) with dependent

250,000

The net investment income tax is applied to the lesser of the net investment income or the MAGI amount in excess of the predetermined limit. For example, a single tax filer with annual gross income of $188,000 and net investment income of $21,055 has a MAGI of $188,000 + $21,055 = $209,055. Since this amount is more than the limit by $209,055 - $200,000 = $9,055, the individual will pay net investment income tax of 3.8% x $9,055 = $344.09. The NII tax does not include capital gains tax or dividends tax which the investor still has to pay.

Estates and trusts are also subject to the NII tax if they have undistributed net investment income and their annual adjusted gross income exceeds the dollar amount at which the highest tax bracket begins. A nonresident alien is not subject to the tax unless he or she is married to a US citizen or resident and elects to be treated as a resident of the US for tax purposes.

For investment companies, this is the amount of income left after operating expenses are subtracted from total investment income, and it is typically expressed on a per share basis. To find the net investment income per share of a company, divide the total investment income by the shares outstanding. This amount is what is available to shareholders as dividends. A publicly-traded company must list its net investment income on its balance sheet.

RELATED TERMS
  1. Investment Income

    Investment income is that coming from interest payments, dividends, ...
  2. Income

    Income is money that an individual or business receives on a ...
  3. Income Tax

    An income tax is a tax that governments impose on income generated ...
  4. Gross Income

    Gross income is the total income from all sources before deductions ...
  5. State Income Tax

    State income tax is a tax by a state on the income of its residents ...
  6. Equity Income

    Equity income is primarily referred to as income from stock dividends. ...
Related Articles
  1. Investing

    Understanding the Income Statement

    The best way to analyze a company - and figure out if it's worth investing in - is to know how to dissect its income statement. Here's how to do it.
  2. Taxes

    Comparing Long-Term vs. Short-Term Capital Gains Tax Rates

    A firm understanding of the difference between the taxation of long- and short-term capital gains is crucial to ensuring the benefits of your investment portfolio outweigh the costs.
  3. Financial Advisor

    Income tax on mutual funds: The basics

    Learn about the basics of income tax on mutual funds, including what types of income may be subject to the capital gains tax rate.
  4. Taxes

    Investment Tax Basics For All Investors

    Asset placement and tax-loss harvesting can reduce the tax burden, however, Investors should still consult tax advisors for investment strategies.
  5. Taxes

    How to Reduce Risk With Tax Diversification

    Is your retirement income adequately diversified from a tax standpoint?
  6. Taxes

    Breaking Down Taxes For Different Income Brackets

    Here is a useful rundown of how much you will pay in taxes based on your income.
  7. Investing

    How Tax-Efficient Is Your Mutual Fund?

    Learn about factors that influence the tax-efficiency of your mutual fund, how income from your investment is taxed and what to look for when choosing a fund.
  8. Retirement

    6 Places To Retire For Low Income Taxes

    These states offer unique tax benefits for their long-term citizens.
  9. Retirement

    Tax Strategies for Your Retirement Income

    Once you’re actually retired, consider these strategies to minimize taxes.
  10. Financial Advisor

    3 Federal Income Tax Facts You Didn't Know

    Learn about three federal income tax facts that most Americans may not know from one of the most trusted financial resources on the Web.
RELATED FAQS
  1. How Are Earnings And Income Different?

    Earnings is the profit a company has earned for a period. When investors refer to a company's earnings, they're typically ... Read Answer >>
Trading Center