What Is a Nonelective Contribution?
Nonelective contributions are funds employers choose to direct toward their eligible workers' employer-sponsored retirement plans regardless if employees make their own contributions. These contributions come directly from the employer and are not deducted from employees' salaries.
This distinction separates a nonelective contribution from a matching contribution, which an employer makes depending on how much money is deducted from an employee's salary and directed into their employer-sponsored retirement plan.
Nonelective Contribution Explained
Nonelective contributions can vary. For example, a company can choose to contribute 30% of each employee's salary toward their employer-sponsored retirement plan. This means that the employer would be contributing 30 cents for each dollar an employee earns into their individual account. Employers are free to change these rates as they see fit for their organizations. However, nonelective contributions can not exceed annual contribution limits set by the IRS.
Benefits of Making Nonelective Contributions
Nonelective contributions are tax-deductible and they can encourage more employees to participate in the company's retirement plan. The decision to offer fully-vested nonelective contributions can also provide retirement plans with Safe Harbor protection, which exempts plans from government-mandated nondiscrimination testing.
The IRS administers these tests to make sure plans are designed to benefit all employees instead of favoring highly-compensated ones. Making nonelective contributions can help employers meet this goal while also remaining compliant with government rules.
To be granted safe harbor by the IRS, employers' nonelective contributions must be at least 3%. Before the end of the plan year, a company can decide to elect Safe Harbor provisions like making nonelective contributions for the following year. They can also decide to elect Safe Harbor provisions for the year 30 to 90 days prior to the end of that year.
Challenges of Making Nonelective Contributions
Offering nonelective contributions would come with additional administrative costs and it may not be feasible for all employers. Making nonelective contributions also means flowing money into default funds for employees who don't manually enroll in a plan and select a fund or make contributions. As fiduciary plan sponsors, employers would need to take due-diligence in selecting these funds.
To make this simpler, the Pension Protection Act of 2006 outlined Qualified Default Investment Alternatives (QDIA)s and how employers can enroll workers in these funds while gaining Safe Harbor protection. QDIAs are defined as Target-Date Funds (TDFs) or lifecycle funds, balanced funds, and professionally managed accounts. In 2013, the Department of Labor issued guidelines on choosing the right TDF for participants.
However, a TDF should not be viewed as a definitive option that would meet the needs of all employees. Employers still need to take a thorough look at their workforce to determine appropriate plan menu funds and QDIAs in order to remain compliant with government regulations and to help employees secure a comfortable retirement.