What Is a Partnership?
A partnership is a formal arrangement by two or more parties to manage and operate a business and share its profits.
There are several types of partnership arrangements. In particular, in a partnership business, all partners share liabilities and profits equally, while in others, partners may have limited liability. There also is the so-called "silent partner," in which one party is not involved in the day-to-day operations of the business.
- A partnership is an arrangement between two or more people to oversee business operations and share its profits and liabilities.
- In a general partnership company, all members share both profits and liabilities.
- Professionals like doctors and lawyers often form a limited liability partnership.
- There may be tax benefits to a partnership compared to a corporation.
How a Partnership Works
In a broad sense, a partnership can be any endeavor undertaken jointly by multiple parties. The parties may be governments, non-profits enterprises, businesses, or private individuals. The goals of a partnership also vary widely.
Within the narrow sense of a for-profit venture undertaken by two or more individuals, there are three main categories of partnership: general partnership, limited partnership, and limited liability partnership.
In a general partnership, all parties share legal and financial liability equally. The individuals are personally responsible for the debts the partnership takes on. Profits are also shared equally. The specifics of profit sharing will almost certainly be laid out in writing in a partnership agreement.
When drafting a partnership agreement, an expulsion clause should be included, detailing what events are grounds for expelling a partner.
Limited liability partnerships (LLPs) are a common structure for professionals, such as accountants, lawyers, and architects. This arrangement limits partners' personal liability so that, for example, if one partner is sued for malpractice, the assets of other partners are not at risk. Some law and accounting firms make a further distinction between equity partners and salaried partners. The latter is more senior than associates but does not have an ownership stake. They are generally paid bonuses based on the firm's profits.
Limited partnerships are a hybrid of general partnerships and limited liability partnerships. At least one partner must be a general partner, with full personal liability for the partnership's debts. At least one other is a silent partner whose liability is limited to the amount invested. This silent partner generally does not participate in the management or day-to-day operation of the partnership.
Finally, the awkwardly-named limited liability limited partnership is a new and relatively uncommon variety. This is a limited partnership that provides a greater shield from liability for its general partners.
These basic varieties of partnerships can be found throughout common law jurisdictions, such as the United States, Britain, and the Commonwealth nations. There are, however, differences in the laws governing them in each jurisdiction.
The U.S. has no federal statute that defines the various forms of partnership. However, every state except Louisiana has adopted one form or another of the Uniform Partnership Act; so, the laws are similar from state to state. The standard version of the act defines the partnership as a separate legal entity from its partners, which is a departure from the previous legal treatment of partnerships. Other common law jurisdictions, including England, do not consider partnerships to be independent legal entities.
Taxes and Partnerships
There is no federal statute defining partnerships, but nevertheless, the Internal Revenue Code (Chapter 1, Subchapter K) includes detailed rules on their federal tax treatment.
Partnerships do not pay income tax. The tax responsibility passes through to the partners, who are not considered employees for tax purposes.
Individuals in partnerships may receive more favorable tax treatment than if they founded a corporation. That is, corporate profits are taxed, as are the dividends paid to owners or shareholders. Partnerships' profits, on the other hand, are not double-taxed in this way.
Frequently Asked Questions
How does a partnership differ from other forms of business organization?
A partnership is a way of structuring a business that involves two or more individuals (the partners). It involves a contractual agreement (the partnership agreement) between all of the partners that set the terms and conditions of their business relationship, including the distribution of ownership, responsibilities, and profits and losses. Partnerships outline and clearly define a business relationship and responsibility. Unlike LLCs or corporations, however, partners are personally held liable for any business debts of the partnership, which means that creditors or other claimants can go after the partners' personal assets. Because of this, individuals who wish to form a partnership should be extremely selective when choosing partners.
If partners don't have limited liability why set up a partnership?
Partnerships have several benefits. They are often easier to set-up than LLCs or corporations and do not involve a formal incorporation process through a government. Partnerships therefore don’t have to follow the same rules and regulations as corporations and LLCs, and are subject to much less paperwork and guidelines. Partnerships also tend to be more tax friendly.
What about limited partnerships?
In limited partnerships (LPs), there are general partners who maintain operations of the firm and have full liability, whereas limited (silent) partners, who are often passive investors or otherwise not involved in day-to-day operations, enjoy limited liability. A limited liability partnership (LLP) is different from an LP. In an LLP, partners are not exempt from liability for the debts of the partnership, but they may be exempt from liability for actions of other partners. A limited liability limited partnership (LLLP) is a relatively new business form that combines aspects of LPs and LLPs.
Do partnerships pay taxes?
The partnership itself does not pay business taxes. Instead, taxes are passed through to the individual partners to file on their own tax returns, often via a Schedule K.
What types of businesses are best-suited for partnerships?
Partnerships are often best for a group of professionals in the same line of work where each partner has an active role in running the business. These often include medical professionals, lawyers, accountants, consultants, finance & investing, and architects.