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What is 'Profit and Loss Statement (P&L)'

The profit and loss statement (P&L) is the financial statement that summarizes the revenues, costs and expenses incurred during a specified period of time, usually a fiscal quarter or year. The term profit and loss statement (P&L) is synonymous with the income statement. These records provide information about a company's ability — or lack of ability — to generate profit by increasing revenue, reducing costs or both. The P&L statement is also referred to as "statement of profit and loss," "income statement," "statement of operations," "statement of financial results" and "income and expense statement."

BREAKING DOWN 'Profit and Loss Statement (P&L)'

The profit and loss statement (P&L), commonly referred to as the income statement, is one of three financial statements every public company issues quarterly and annually, along with the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. The income statement, like the cash flow statement, shows changes in accounts over a set period of time. The balance sheet, on the other hand, is a snapshot, showing what is owned and owed at a single moment. It is important to compare the income statement with the cash flow statement since under the accrual method of accounting, revenues and expenses can be logged before cash actually changes hands.

[ Learn how to create an income statement modeled on a real company in Investopedia Academy's Financial Modeling course. You'll create and use financial models to evaluate performance of a project, department, or an entire business. Learn more today! ]

The income statement follows a general form as seen in the example below. It begins with an entry for revenue, known as the "top line," and subtracts the costs of doing business, including the cost of goods sold, operating expenses, tax expense and interest expense. The difference, known as the bottom line, is net income, also referred to as profit or earnings. Many templates for creating a personal or business profit and loss statement can be found online for free.

It is important to compare income statements from different accounting periods, as the changes in revenues, operating costs, research and development spending and net earnings over time are more meaningful than the numbers themselves. For example, a company's revenues may be growing, but its expenses might be growing at a faster rate.

The Profit and Loss Statement (P&L) Example

Below is Caterpillar Inc's (CAT) income or profit and loss statement for 2013 and 2014 (all figures in millions of USD except per share data):

Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2014 2013
Sales and revenues:
Sales of Machinery, Energy & Transportation 52,142 52,694
Revenues of Financial Products 3,042 2,962
Total sales and revenues 55,184 55,656
Operating costs:
Cost of goods sold 39,767 40,727
Selling, general and administrative expenses 5,697 5,547
Research and development expenses 2,135 2,046
Interest expense of Financial Products 624 727
Other operating (income) expenses 1,633 981
Total operating costs 49,856 50,028
Operating profit 5,328 5,628
Interest expense excluding Financial Products 484 465
Other income (expense) 239 (35)
Consolidated profit before taxes 5,083 5,128
Provision (benefit) for income taxes 1,380 1,319
Profit of consolidated companies 3,703 3,809
Equity in profit (loss) of unconsolidated affiliated companies 8 (6)
Profit of consolidated and affiliated companies 3,711 3,803
Less: Profit (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests 16 14
Profit [footnote 1: Profit attributable to common shareholders] 3,695 3,789
Profit per common share 5.99 5.87
Profit per common share – diluted [footnote 2: Diluted by assumed exercise of stock-based compensation awards using the treasury stock method] 5.88 5.75
Weighted-average common shares outstanding (millions)
- Basic 617.2 645.2
- Diluted [see footnote 2] 628.9 658.6
Cash dividends declared per common share 2.70 2.32

The income statement can be used to calculate a number of metrics, including the gross profit margin, the operating profit margin, the net profit margin and the operating ratio. Together with the balance sheet and cash flow statement, the income statement provides an in-depth look at a company's financial performance and position.

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