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What is the 'Purchasing Managers' Index - PMI'

The Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for manufacturing and service sectors. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. 

BREAKING DOWN 'Purchasing Managers' Index - PMI'

The PMI is compiled and released monthly by the Institute of Supply Management (ISM). The PMI is based on a monthly survey sent to senior executives at over 400 companies. The PMI is based on five major survey areas: new orders, inventory levels, production, supplier deliveries and employment. The ISM weights each of these survey areas equally. The surveys include questions about business conditions and any changes, whether it be improving, no changes or deteriorating. 

The headline PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared to the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change. The further from 50 is greater the level of change. The PMI is calculated as: 

PMI = (P1 * 1) + (P2 * 0.5) + (P3 * 0)

Where:

P1 = percent of answers reporting an improvement  

P2 = percent of answers reporting no change 

P3 = percent of answers reporting a deterioration 

Other companies also produce PMI numbers, including Markit Group, which puts out the PMI for various countries outside the U.S.  

How the PMI Impacts Management Decisions

The PMI and relevant data produced monthly by the ISM from its surveys are critical decision-making tools for managers in a variety of roles. An automobile manufacturer, for example, makes production decisions based on the new orders it expects from customers in future months. Those new orders drive management's purchasing decisions about dozens of component parts and raw materials, such as steel and plastic. Existing inventory balances also drive the amount of production the manufacturer needs to complete to fill new orders and to keep some inventory on hand at the end of the month.

Suppliers also make decisions based on the PMI. A parts supplier for a manufacturer follows the PMI to estimate the amount of future demand for its products. The supplier also wants to know how much inventory its customers have on hand, which also impacts the amount of production its clients must generate. PMI information about supply and demand impacts the prices that suppliers can charge. If the manufacturer's new orders are growing, for example, it may raise customer prices and accept price increases from its suppliers. On the other hand, when new orders are declining, the manufacturer may have to lower its prices and demand a lower cost for the parts it purchases. A company can use the PMI to help plan its annual budget, manage staffing levels and forecast cash flow.

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