Portfolio Management: Definition, Types, and Strategies

Portfolio Management

Investopedia / Sydney Saporito

What Is Portfolio Management?

Portfolio management is the art and science of selecting and overseeing a group of investments that meet the long-term financial objectives and risk tolerance of a client, a company, or an institution.

Some individuals do their own investment portfolio management. That requires a basic understanding of the key elements of portfolio building and maintenance that make for success, including asset allocation, diversification, and rebalancing.

Key Takeaways

  • Investment portfolio management involves building and overseeing a selection of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cash that meet the long-term financial goals and risk tolerance of an investor.
  • Active portfolio management requires strategically buying and selling stocks and other assets in an effort to beat the performance of the broader market.
  • Passive portfolio management seeks to match the returns of the market by mimicking the makeup of an index or indexes.

Understanding Portfolio Management

Professional licensed portfolio managers work on behalf of clients, while individuals may choose to build and manage their own portfolios. In either case, the portfolio manager's ultimate goal is to maximize the investments' expected return within an appropriate level of risk exposure.

Portfolio management requires the ability to weigh strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats across the full spectrum of investments. The choices involve trade-offs, from debt versus equity to domestic versus international, and growth versus safety.

Passive vs. Active Management

Portfolio management may be either passive or active.

  • Passive management is the set-it-and-forget-it long-term strategy. It may involve investing in one or more exchange-traded (ETF) index funds. This is commonly referred to as indexing or index investing. Those who build indexed portfolios may use modern portfolio theory (MPT) to help them optimize the mix.
  • Active management involves attempting to beat the performance of an index by actively buying and selling individual stocks and other assets. Closed-end funds are generally actively managed. Active managers may use any of a wide range of quantitative or qualitative models to aid in their evaluations of potential investments.

Key Elements of Portfolio Management

Asset Allocation

The key to effective portfolio management is the long-term mix of assets. Generally, that means stocks, bonds, and cash equivalents such as certificates of deposit. There are others, often referred to as alternative investments, such as real estate, commodities, derivatives, and cryptocurrency.

Asset allocation is based on the understanding that different types of assets do not move in concert, and some are more volatile than others. A mix of assets provides balance and protects against risk.

Investors with a more aggressive profile weight their portfolios toward more volatile investments such as growth stocks. Investors with a conservative profile weight their portfolios toward stabler investments such as bonds and blue-chip stocks.

Rebalancing captures recent gains and opens new opportunities while keeping the portfolio in line with its original risk/return profile.

Diversification

The only certainty in investing is that it is impossible to consistently predict winners and losers. The prudent approach is to create a basket of investments that provides broad exposure within an asset class.

Diversification involves spreading the risk and reward of individual securities within an asset class, or between asset classes. Because it is difficult to know which subset of an asset class or sector is likely to outperform another, diversification seeks to capture the returns of all of the sectors over time while reducing volatility at any given time.

Real diversification is made across various classes of securities, sectors of the economy, and geographical regions.

Rebalancing

Rebalancing is used to return a portfolio to its original target allocation at regular intervals, usually annually. This is done to reinstate the original asset mix when the movements of the markets force it out of kilter.

For example, a portfolio that starts out with a 70% equity and 30% fixed-income allocation could, after an extended market rally, shift to an 80/20 allocation. The investor has made a good profit, but the portfolio now has more risk than the investor can tolerate.

Rebalancing generally involves selling high-priced securities and putting that money to work in lower-priced and out-of-favor securities.

The annual exercise of rebalancing allows the investor to capture gains and expand the opportunity for growth in high-potential sectors while keeping the portfolio aligned with the original risk/return profile.

Active Portfolio Management

Investors who implement an active management approach use fund managers or brokers to buy and sell stocks in an attempt to outperform a specific index, such as the Standard & Poor's 500 Index or the Russell 1000 Index.

An actively managed investment fund has an individual portfolio manager, co-managers, or a team of managers actively making investment decisions for the fund. The success of an actively managed fund depends on a combination of in-depth research, market forecasting, and the expertise of the portfolio manager or management team.

Portfolio managers engaged in active investing pay close attention to market trends, shifts in the economy, changes to the political landscape, and news that affects companies. This data is used to time the purchase or sale of investments in an effort to take advantage of irregularities. Active managers claim that these processes will boost the potential for returns higher than those achieved by simply mimicking the holdings on a particular index.

Trying to beat the market inevitably involves additional market risk. Indexing eliminates this particular risk, as there is no possibility of human error in terms of stock selection. Index funds are also traded less frequently, which means that they incur lower expense ratios and are more tax-efficient than actively managed funds.

Passive Portfolio Management

Passive portfolio management, also referred to as index fund management, aims to duplicate the return of a particular market index or benchmark. Managers buy the same stocks that are listed on the index, using the same weighting that they represent in the index.

A passive strategy portfolio can be structured as an exchange-traded fund (ETF), a mutual fund, or a unit investment trust. Index funds are branded as passively managed because each has a portfolio manager whose job is to replicate the index rather than select the assets purchased or sold.

The management fees assessed on passive portfolios or funds are typically far lower than active management strategies.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Are the Types of Portfolio Management?

Broadly speaking, there are only two types of portfolio management strategies: passive investing and active investing.

Passive management is a set-it-and-forget-it long-term strategy. Often referred to as indexing or index investing, it aims to duplicate the return of a particular market index or benchmark and may involve investing in one or more exchange-traded (ETF) index funds.

Active management involves attempting to beat the performance of an index by actively buying and selling individual stocks and other assets. Closed-end funds are generally actively managed.

What Is Asset Allocation?

Asset allocation involves spreading the investor's money among different asset classes so that risks are reduced and opportunities are maximized.

Stocks, bonds, and cash are the three most common asset classes, but others include real estate, commodities, currencies, and crypto.

Within each of these are sub-classes that play into a portfolios allocation. For instance, how much weight should be given to domestic vs. foreign stocks or bonds? How much to growth stocks vs. value stocks? And so on.

What Is Diversification?

Diversification involves owning assets and asset classes that have been shown over time to move in opposite directions. When one asset class performs poorly, other asset classes usually prosper.

This provides a cushion to your portfolio, offsetting losses.

Moreover, financial mathematics shows that proper diversification can increase a portfolio's overall expected return while reducing its riskiness.

What Is the Objective of Portfolio Management?

The objective of portfolio management is to create and maintain a personalized plan for investing over the long term in order to meet an individual's key financial goals.

This means selecting a mix of investments that matches the person's responsibilities, objectives, and appetite for risk. Further, it means reevaluating the actual performance of the portfolio over time to make sure it is on track and to revise it as needed.

What Does an Investment Portfolio Manager Do?

An investment portfolio manager meets with a client one-on-one to get a detailed picture of the person's current financial situation, long-term goals, and tolerance for risk.

From there, the portfolio manager can draw up a proposal for how the client can meet their goals. If the client accepts the plan, the portfolio can be created by buying the selected assets.

The client may start out by contributing a lump sum, or add to the portfolio's balance periodically, or both.

The portfolio manager takes responsibility for monitoring the assets and making changes to the portfolio as needed, with the approval of the client.

Portfolio managers generally charge a fee for their service that is based on the client's assets under management.

The Bottom Line

Anyone who wants to grow their money has choices to make. You can be your own investment portfolio manager or you can hire a professional to do it for you. You can choose a passive management strategy by putting your money in index funds. Or, you can try to beat the markets by moving your money more frequently from one asset to another.

In any case, you'll want to pay attention to the basics of portfolio management: pick a mix of assets to lower your overall risk, diversify your holdings to maximize your potential returns, and rebalance your portfolio regularly to keep the mix right.

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