What is a Provisional Call Feature

Provisional call feature is a mechanism of a convertible issue that gives an issuer the right to accelerate the first redemption date if the underlying common stock trades at or above a pre-determined level for an extended period of time.

BREAKING DOWN Provisional Call Feature

Provisional call features are intended to defend an issuer from having to honor conversions of bonds into common stock at a price that is significantly unfavorable. In one example, a convertible bond may allow a provisional call of the issue if the underlying common stock trades at 120 percent of the conversion price for 30 consecutive days. This percentage, or multiple, of the conversion price is known as the trigger price, because it triggers the conversion. Typically, the terms of a provisional call are 150 percent of the conversion price for 20 successive days.

Call protection is important for investors because it guarantees the optionality of the convertible, along with any yield advantage it might have over the underlying shares for a fixed period of time. Typically, the greater the length of the call protection, the greater the benefit for investors.

Difference Between Hard Call and Soft Call Provisions

There are two types of call protection: hard call and soft call provision. Most convertible bonds are issued with a hard call provision, which protects bondholders from having their bonds called before a certain time has elapsed. During the hard-call protection period, a bond cannot be called under any circumstances. Convertible bonds may carry a provisional soft call feature in addition to or in place of hard call protection. Soft call provisional protection is when the bonds can be called subject to the share price of the underlying common stock being above a certain level.

Pros and Cons of Provisional Call Feature

Investors should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of a security’s call feature before investing:

Cons: A call feature causes uncertainty about whether or not a bond will remain outstanding until its maturity date is reached. Investors risk losing a bond that pays a higher rate of interest when rates fall and issuers call in their bonds. When this occurs, investors generally have to reinvest in securities that have lower yields. In addition, calls will generally limit the appreciation of a bond’s price that otherwise would be expected to rise when interest rates begin to decline.

Pros: Bonds with a call feature generally place investors at a disadvantage. Therefore, callable bonds offer higher yields than non-callable bonds. Nevertheless, higher yields by themselves are not always enticing enough to convince investors to buy them. So, to make the bonds more attractive, issuers frequently set the bond's call price higher than the face value, or principal, of the issue. This difference between the call price and the principal is the call premium.