What is a Revaluation
A revaluation is a calculated upward adjustment to a country's official exchange rate relative to a chosen baseline. The baseline can include wage rates, the price of gold or a foreign currency. In a fixed exchange rate regime, only a decision by a country's government, such as its central bank, can alter the official value of the currency. Revaluation is contrasted by devaluation, which is a downward adjustment.
BREAKING DOWN Revaluation
A revaluation can occur on a regular basis, marked by the observable fluctuations in the foreign currency market and the associated exchange rates.
Example of Currency Revaluation
As an example, let's say a government has set 10 units of its currency equal to $1 in U.S. currency. To revalue, the government might change the rate to five units per dollar. This results in its currency being twice as expensive when compared to U.S. dollars than it was previously. Before the Chinese government revalued the yuan, it was pegged to the U.S. dollar. After revaluation, it was pegged to a basket of world currencies.
Currency Revaluation and Asset Revaluation
Revaluations affect not just the currency being examined but can also affect the valuation of assets held by foreign companies in that particular currency. Since a revaluation has the potential to change the exchange rate between two countries and their respective currencies, the book values of foreign-held assets may have to be adjusted to reflect the impact of the change in the exchange rate.
For example, if the aforementioned currency revaluation occurred, any assets held by a U.S. company in the foreign economy need to be revalued. If the asset, held in foreign currency, was previously valued at $100,000 based on the old exchange rate, the revaluation would require its value to be changed to $200,000. This change reflects the new value of the foreign asset, in the home currency, by adjusting for the revaluation of the currency involved.
Global Events and Revaluation
Currency revaluation can be triggered by a variety of events. Some of the more common causes include changes in the interest rates between various countries and large-scale events that affect the overall profitability, or competitiveness, of an economy. Changes in leadership can also cause fluctuations, as they may signal a change in a particular market’s stability.
Speculative demand can also impact the value of a currency. For example, in 2016, prior to the vote determining if Britain would remain part of the European Union, speculation caused fluctuations in the value of multiple currencies, including the U.S. dollar and the Chinese yuan. Since it was not yet known whether Britain would remain, any action taken because of the possibility was considered speculative in nature.