What Is an Unpaid Dividend?

An unpaid dividend is a dividend that is due to be paid to stockholders of record but has not yet been distributed. An unpaid dividend exists during the time between the record date—the date as of which all holders of the security are eligible to receive the dividend—and the dividend payment date. Once the payment date has been reached, all unpaid dividends will be paid out.

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What Is A Dividend?

Understanding Unpaid Dividends

An unpaid dividend is a dividend that has been declared by a corporation’s board of directors but has not yet been paid out. Unpaid dividends are not uncommon, as typically there is a lag between the declaration date and the dividend payment date.

How Dividends Are Distributed

There are four key dates that are part of the dividend payout process. The declaration date, also known as the "announcement date," is the date when a company's board of directors announces the next dividend payment, which includes the dividend's size, ex-dividend date, and payment date.

The ex-dividend date, or ex-date, is the date on which the dividend wouldn't be owed to a new buyer of the stock. This occurs one day before the date of record, which is when the company verifies shareholders eligible for a dividend payout by checking its records.

The date of payment is when the company sends out the dividend payment to all holders of record—typically, a week or more after the date of record.

Key Takeaways

  • An unpaid dividend is one that has been announced by a corporation, but not yet paid out to the investor.
  • Unpaid dividends only exist for a short period of time, in between the declaration date and dividend payment date.
  • Unpaid dividends are different from unclaimed dividends, which are dividends the company has already paid, but the shareholder has not yet collected.

Not to Be Confused With Unclaimed Dividends

Unclaimed dividends are different than unpaid dividends. Unclaimed dividends have already been paid by the company, but have not been taken, or claimed, by the shareholder. Just as a company is obliged to report to the Internal Revenue Service the dividends it paid, shareholders also need to claim their dividends, not only to receive the payment of course, but also to accurately disclose that additional income on their tax return.

Many shareholders still get physical dividend checks sent to them by companies. But quite a few shareholders forget to cash them, or never get the check in the first place because of having moved, or for various other reasons.

Thus, it can happen that dividends may be paid but not claimed. For dividends that are not claimed within 30 days of the declaration date, the company puts them in a special unpaid dividend account. If, after seven years, a dividend still remains unclaimed, the company is supposed to transfer the money to an “investor education and protection fund.”

Simultaneously, the company is required to post a list of unclaimed dividends, along with the dividend-eligible shareholders’ names, on its website.

Unpaid dividends are a frequent—and usually temporary—occurrence; there is typically a period of time between the date on which a company's board announces a dividend and the date on which the payment is made.

Accounting Implications of Unpaid Dividends

For the company, both unpaid and unclaimed dividends are shown as current liabilities on the balance sheet until they are paid. Shareholders' equity is decreased by the total dividend amount due to be paid on the declaration date. To offset that, a "dividends payable" entry is made into the account on the same date. After the dividend amount is finally paid to shareholders, the dividends payable amount shown on the account is reversed and zeroed out.