Buying a home can be challenging for a first-timer. After all, there are so many steps, tasks, and requirements, and you may be anxious about making an expensive mistake. But first-time homebuyers enjoy some special advantages created to encourage new entrants into the real estate market.
To demystify the process, so you get the most out of your purchase, here is a rundown of what you need to consider before you buy and what you can expect from the buying process itself, plus tips to make life easier after you buy your first home.
- First-time homebuyers, as defined by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), can get help from state programs, tax breaks, and federally backed loans.
- Consider the type of residence that will serve your needs, what you can afford, how much financing you can secure, and who will help you conduct your search.
- Buying a home involves finding the property, securing financing, making an offer, getting a home inspection, and closing on the purchase.
- National and state first-time buyer programs may be useful if you can't afford a high down payment.
- Once you’ve moved in, it’s important to maintain your home and keep saving.
Top Tips For Buying Your First Home
Benefits of Being a First-Time Homebuyer
Buying a home is still considered a key aspect of the American dream, as a home is typically an appreciating asset that grows in value over time. Being a first-time buyer can open the door to tax breaks and federally backed loans if you don’t have the usual minimum down payment—ideally, 20% of the purchase price for a conventional loan—or are a member of a certain group. And you may qualify as a first-time buyer even if you’re not a novice.
You may also be able to take advantage of down payment assistance or closing cost assistance programs as a first-time buyer. These programs, which can be operated by state governments and nonprofit organizations, can provide you with funding to cover your down payment and closing costs in order to make your home ownership dream a reality.
Purchasing a home with less than 20% down can mean paying private mortgage insurance (PMI) until you reach 78% to 80% equity in the home.
Qualifications of First-Time Buyers
Who is a first-time buyer for a home? According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), a first-time homebuyer is someone who meets any of the following conditions:
- An individual who has not owned a principal residence for three years. If you’ve owned a home but your spouse has not, then you can purchase a place together as first-time homebuyers.
- A single parent who has only owned a home with a former spouse while married.
- A displaced homemaker who has only owned a home with a spouse.
- An individual who has only owned a principal residence not permanently affixed to a permanent foundation in accordance with applicable regulations.
- An individual who has only owned a property that was not in compliance with state, local, or model building codes—and that cannot be brought into compliance for less than the cost of constructing a permanent structure.
That broad definition could make it easier for you to qualify as a first-time buyer and enjoy some of the associated benefits that go along with buying a home for the first time.
6 Questions to Consider Before You Buy
Your first step is to determine what your long-term goals are and how home ownership fits in with those goals. Perhaps you’re simply looking to transform all those “wasted” rent payments into mortgage payments that give you something tangible: equity. Or maybe you see homeownership as a sign of independence and enjoy the idea of being your own landlord. Also, buying a home can be a good investment. Narrowing down your big-picture homeownership goals will point you in the right direction. Here are six questions to consider:
1. How’s Your Financial Health?
Before clicking through pages of online listings or falling in love with your dream home, do a serious audit of your finances. You need to be prepared for both the purchase and the ongoing expenses of a home. The outcome of this audit will tell you whether you’re ready to take this big step, or if you need to do more to prepare. Follow these steps:
Look at your savings. Don’t even consider buying a home before you have an emergency savings account with three to six months of living expenses. When you buy a home, there will be considerable upfront costs, including the down payment and closing costs. You need money put away not only for those costs but also for your emergency fund. Lenders will require it.
One of the biggest challenges is keeping your savings in an accessible, relatively safe vehicle that still provides a return so that you’re keeping up with inflation.
- If you have one to three years to realize your goal, then a certificate of deposit (CD) may be a good choice. It’s not going to make you rich, but you aren’t going to lose money, either (unless you get hit with a penalty for cashing out early). The same idea can be applied to purchasing a short-term bond or fixed-income portfolio that will not only give you some growth but also protect you from the tumultuous nature of stock markets.
- If you have six months to a year, then keep the money liquid. A high-yield savings account could be the best option. Make sure it is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (most banks are) so that if the bank goes under, you will still have access to your money up to $250,000.
Review your spending. You need to know exactly how much you’re spending every month—and where it’s going. This calculation will tell you how much you can allocate to a mortgage payment. Make sure you account for everything—utilities, food, car maintenance and payments, student debt, clothing, kids’ activities, entertainment, retirement savings, regular savings, and any miscellaneous items.
Check your credit. Generally, to qualify for a home loan, you’ll need good credit, a history of paying your bills on time, and a maximum debt-to-income (DTI) ratio of 43%. Lenders generally prefer to limit housing expenses (principal, interest, taxes, and homeowner's insurance) to about 30% of the borrowers’ monthly gross income, though this figure can vary widely, depending on the local real estate market.
Paying down some of your debt or looking for ways to generate extra income before applying for a mortgage could help to improve your debt-to-income ratio.
2. Which Type of Home Will Best Suit Your Needs?
You have a number of options when purchasing a residential property: a traditional single-family home, a duplex, a townhouse, a condominium, a co-operative, or a multifamily building with two to four units. Each option has its pros and cons, depending on your homeownership goals, so you need to decide which type of property will help you reach those goals. You can save on the purchase price in any category by choosing a fixer-upper, but be forewarned: The amount of time, sweat equity, and money required to turn a fixer-upper into your dream home might be a lot more than you bargained for.
3. Which Specific Home Features Do You Want?
While it’s good to retain some flexibility in this list, you’re making perhaps the biggest purchase of your life, and you deserve to have that purchase fit both your needs and wants as closely as possible. Your list should include basic desires, like size and neighborhood, all the way down to smaller details like bathroom layout and a kitchen fitted with durable appliances. Scanning real estate websites can help you get a sense of the pricing and availability of properties offering the features that are most important to you.
4. How Much Mortgage Do You Qualify for?
Before you start shopping, it’s important to get an idea of how much a lender will give you to purchase your first home. You may think you can afford a $300,000 home, but lenders may think you’re only good for $200,000 based on factors like how much other debt you have, your monthly income, and how long you’ve been at your current job. In addition, many real estate agents will not spend time with clients who haven’t clarified how much they can afford to spend.
Consider getting pre-approved for a loan before placing an offer on a home. In many instances, sellers will not even entertain an offer that’s not accompanied by a mortgage pre-approval. You do this by applying for a mortgage and completing the necessary paperwork. It is beneficial to shop around for a lender and to compare interest rates and fees by using a tool like our mortgage calculator or Google searches.
5. How Much Home Can You Actually Afford?
Sometimes a bank will give you a loan for more house than you really want to pay for. Just because a bank says it will lend you $300,000 doesn’t mean that you should actually borrow that much. Many first-time homebuyers make this mistake and end up “house poor” with little left after they make their monthly mortgage payment to cover other costs, such as clothing, utilities, vacations, entertainment, or even food.
Mortgage lending discrimination is illegal. If you think you've been discriminated against based on race, religion, sex, marital status, use of public assistance, national origin, disability, or age, there are steps you can take. One such step is to file a report to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau or with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).
In deciding how big a loan to actually take, you’ll want to look at the house’s total cost, not just the monthly payment. Consider how high the property taxes are in your chosen neighborhood, how much homeowner's insurance will cost, how much you anticipate spending to maintain or improve the house, and how much your closing costs will be.
House shopping with a smaller budget than you are approved for will not only make your financial life more flexible, but it can also help you in a competitive housing market. When demand for homes outpaces supply, that can push prices up and make finding an affordable home more challenging. If you shop with enough wiggle room you may not end up losing a bidding war on your dream house.
6. Who Will Guide You Through the Homebuying Process?
A real estate agent will help you locate homes that meet your needs and are in your price range, then meet with you to view those homes. Once you’ve chosen a home to buy, these professionals can assist you in negotiating the entire purchase process, including making an offer, getting a loan, and completing paperwork. A good real estate agent’s expertise can protect you from any pitfalls that you might encounter during the process. Most agents receive a commission, paid from the seller’s proceeds.
Credits For First-Time Homebuyers
The Buying Process
Now that you’ve decided to take the plunge, let’s explore what you can expect from the home buying process itself. This can be a chaotic time, with offers and counteroffers flying furiously, but if you are prepared for the hassle (and the paperwork), then you can get through the process with your sanity intact. Here is the basic progression that you can expect:
Find a Home
Make sure to take advantage of all the available options for finding homes on the market, including using your real estate agent, searching for listings online, and driving around the neighborhoods that interest you in search of for sale signs. Put out some feelers with your friends, family, and business contacts. You never know where a good reference or lead on a home might come from.
Once you’re seriously shopping for a home, don’t walk into an open house without having an agent (or at least being prepared to throw out the name of someone with whom you’re supposedly working). You can see how it might not work in your best interest to start dealing with a seller’s agent before contacting one of your own.
If you’re on a budget, look for homes whose full potential has yet to be realized. Even if you can’t afford to replace the hideous wallpaper in the bathroom now, you may be willing to live with it for a while in exchange for getting into a place that you can afford. If the home meets your needs in terms of the big things that are difficult to change, such as location and size, then don’t let physical imperfections turn you away. First-time homebuyers should look for a house that they can add value to, as this ensures a bump in equity to help them up the property ladder.
Consider Your Financing Options, Then Secure Financing
First-time homebuyers have a wide variety of options to help them get into a home—both those available to any purchaser, including Federal Housing Authority (FHA)-backed mortgages and those geared especially to novices. Many first-time homebuyer programs offer minimum down payments as low as 3% to 5% (vs. the standard 20%), and a few require no down payment at all. Be sure to look into or consider:
- HUD’s resource list. Although the government agency itself does not make grants directly to individuals, it does grant funds earmarked for first-time homebuyers to organizations with Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax-exempt status. The FHA (and its loan program) is part of HUD.
- Your IRA. Every first-time homebuyer can withdraw up to $10,000 out of their traditional individual retirement account (IRA) or Roth IRA without paying the 10% penalty for early withdrawal (but you’ll still pay taxes if you use a traditional IRA). That means a couple could withdraw a maximum of $20,000 ($10,000 from each account) to use toward a first-home purchase. Just know that if you don’t use the funds to pay for the home within 120 days—and if you’re under age 59½—then it becomes subject to the 10% penalty. Also, you will owe income taxes on the withdrawal(s).
- Your state’s programs. Many states, including Illinois, Ohio, and Washington, offer financial assistance with down payments and closing costs, as well as with expenses to rehab or improve a property, for first-time homebuyers who qualify. Typically, eligibility in these programs is based on income and, often, on the size of a property’s purchase price.
- Native American options. Native American homebuyers can apply for a Section 184 loan. This loan requires a 1.5% loan upfront guarantee fee and a 2.25% down payment on loans over $50,000 (for loans below that amount, it’s 1.25%). Section 184 loans can be used only for single-family homes (one to four units) and primary residences.
Preapprovals and Choosing Lenders
Don’t be bound by loyalty to your current financial institution when seeking a pre-approval or searching for a mortgage: Shop around, even if you only qualify for one type of loan. Fees can be surprisingly varied. An FHA loan, for example, may have different fees depending on whether you’re applying for the loan through a local bank, credit union, mortgage banker, large bank, or mortgage broker. Mortgage interest rates—which, of course, have a major impact on the total price that you pay for your home—can also vary.
Once you’ve settled on a lender and applied, the lender will verify all of the financial information provided (checking credit scores, verifying employment information, calculating DTIs, etc.). The lender can pre-approve the borrower for a certain amount. Be aware that even if you have been pre-approved for a mortgage, your loan can fall through at the last minute if you do something to alter your credit score, such as finance a car purchase.
The minimum credit score to qualify for an FHA loan if you have 10% for a down payment. 580 is the minimum credit score to qualify with a 3.5% down payment.
Some authorities also recommend having a backup lender. Qualifying for a loan isn’t a guarantee that your loan eventually will be funded—underwriting guidelines can shift, lender risk analysis can change, and investor markets can alter. Clients may sign loan and escrow documents, then be notified 24 to 48 hours before the closing that the lender has frozen funding on their loan program. Having a second lender that has already qualified you for a mortgage gives you an alternate way to keep the process on, or close to, schedule.
Make an Offer
Your real estate agent will help you decide how much money you want to offer for the house, along with any conditions you want to ask for. Your agent will then present the offer to the seller’s agent; the seller will either accept your offer or issue a counteroffer. You can then accept, or continue to go back and forth until you either reach a deal or decide to call it quits.
Before submitting your offer, take another look at your budget. This time, factor in estimated closing costs (which can total anywhere from 2% to 5% of the purchase price), commuting costs, and any immediate repairs and mandatory appliances that you may need before you can move in. Think ahead. It’s easy to be ambushed by higher or unexpected utilities and other costs if you are moving from a rental to a larger home. For example, you might request energy bills from the past 12 months to get an idea of average monthly costs.
When you review your budget, don’t overlook hidden costs, such as the home inspection, home insurance, property taxes, and homeowner's association fees.
If you reach an agreement, you’ll make a good faith deposit, and the process then transitions into escrow. Escrow is a short period of time (often about 30 days) during which the seller takes the house off the market with the contractual expectation that you will buy it—provided you don’t find any serious problems with it when you inspect it.
Have the Home Inspected
Even if the home that you plan to purchase appears to be flawless, there’s no substitute for having a trained professional do a home inspection of the property for the quality, safety, and overall condition of your potential new home. You don’t want to get stuck with a money pit or with the headache of performing a lot of unexpected repairs. If the home inspection reveals serious defects that the seller did not disclose, then you’ll generally be able to rescind your offer and get your deposit back. Alternatively, you can negotiate to have the seller make the repairs or discount the selling price.
Close—or Move on
If you’re able to work out a deal with the seller—or better yet, if the inspection didn’t reveal any significant problems—then you should be ready to close. Closing basically involves signing a ton of paperwork in a very short time period, while praying that nothing falls through at the last minute.
Things that you’ll be dealing with and paying for in the final stages of your purchase may include having the home appraised (mortgage companies require this to protect their interest in the house), doing a title search to make sure that no one other than the seller has a claim to the property, obtaining private mortgage insurance or a piggyback loan if your down payment is less than 20%, and completing mortgage paperwork. Other closing costs can include loan origination fees, title insurance, surveys, taxes, and credit report charges.
Congratulations, New Homeowner! Now What?
You’ve signed the papers and paid the movers, and the new place is starting to feel like home. Game over, right? Not quite. Homeownership costs extend beyond down payments and monthly mortgage payments. Let’s now go over some final tips to make life as a new homeowner more fun and secure.
With homeownership comes major unexpected expenses, such as replacing the roof or getting a new water heater. Start an emergency fund for your home so that you won't be caught off guard when these costs inevitably arise.
Perform Regular Maintenance
With the large amount of money that you’re putting into your home, you’ll want to make sure to take excellent care of it. Regular maintenance can decrease your repair costs by allowing problems to be fixed when they are small and manageable.
Ignore the Housing Market
It doesn’t matter what your home is worth at any given moment except the moment when you sell it. Being able to choose when you sell your home, rather than being forced to sell it due to job relocation or financial distress, will be the biggest determinant of whether you will see a solid profit from your investment.
Don’t Rely on Selling to Fund Your Retirement
Even though you own a home, you should do your best to save the maximum in your retirement savings accounts every year. Although it may seem hard to believe for anyone who has observed the fortunes that some people made during the housing bubble, you won’t necessarily make a killing when you sell your house.
If you want to look at your home as a source of wealth in retirement, once you’ve paid off your mortgage, consider the money you were spending on monthly payments as a source of funding for your living and medical expenses in retirement. Also, retirees often want to stay put (despite all the articles you see about downsizing or retiring in exotic locales).
What Is Financial Health?
Financial health is another way of stating what one's financial condition is and involves savings, expenses, and ongoing income through employment. It also involves a person's credit score, which determines the ability to qualify for loans such as those for homes or new vehicles and the terms of the loans. Financial health reflects the ability to live within one's means, save money and be able to afford all monthly obligations like loan payments and everyday expenses.
How Much Mortgage Can I Qualify for?
An effective way to determine how much of a mortgage you might qualify for is to utilize a mortgage calculator. A mortgage calculator will require information like income, total monthly debt obligations, and how long you've been with your current employer. Your credit score will also be needed to provide an accurate estimate of the mortgage amount and interest rate for which you would potentially qualify.
How Much Mortgage Can I Afford?
A common rule of thumb used by lenders in determining mortgage affordability is for the estimated mortgage payment to be no more than 28% of a borrower's monthly gross income. Mortgage lenders take into account things like annual income, total monthly debts, down payment, debt-to-income ratio along with loan factors like the interest rate, term, estimated taxes, and insurance when calculating how much they will lend to a given borrower.
How Long Does It Take to Buy a House?
Buying a house can take as little as a few days if you're buying in cash, or can take years if you're counting the amount of time it takes you to save money for a down payment and decide where to live. In a competitive housing market, you may put in multiple offers on homes before one is accepted. Conversely, mounting worry over a housing recession could lead more sellers to pull their homes from the market, making it more difficult to find a suitable property. If you already have your money saved and have a good idea of the neighborhoods and type of home you want, the process will probably take you two to six months. Ask a local real estate agent for a more accurate timeline based on your local market conditions.
How Do You Find a Realtor?
Asking friends, family, and colleagues for recommendations is a great place to start. You can also use local searches and read reviews of realtors on sites like Zillow. Once you've picked out a few of your top realtors, meet with them and see if they're a good fit for you.
The Bottom Line
This overview should help put you on the path to filling in any gaps in your homebuying knowledge. Remember that the more you educate yourself about the process beforehand, the less stressful it will be, and the more likely you will be to get the house you want for a price you can afford. That includes researching and comparing the best mortgage rates. When all is said and done, you’ll have the confidence that comes from successfully negotiating a major step in your life.
Correction—July 13, 2022: A previous version of this article incorrectly stated that DTI is calculated using net income, not gross income.