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Industrialization is the process of a society, usually a country, transforming itself from an agricultural-based economy to one based on manufacturing. Even then, agricultural output grows as machines replace human labor as the means to plant, grow and harvest crops.

Industrialization is generally associated with the European industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th century, as well as the industrial revolution of the United State leading up to World War II. 

In manufacturing, the traditional means of production was skilled craft workers.  After industrialization, this type of labor was mostly replaced by factories with assembly lines.  Human labor is still used, but it is divided and compartmentalized.  Each laborer performs one function in the assembly process. This division of labor makes production more efficient.  Marginal costs are reduced and greater economies of scale are achieved. Prices fall as more products are produced.  This allows more consumers to afford more diverse goods and raises the standard of living for more people.

Another type of industrialization is replacing manual labor with complex machines that are finely tuned to perform tasks that once could only be done by humans.

Industrialization is an outgrowth of a capitalist economy where resources are allocated to the most efficient uses. 

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